Coronary Artery Anatomy and Anomalies



Congenital coronary artery anomalies are not common, but it is crucial to identify them as in some cases they can cause myocardial ischemia, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. It is also important to identify variants and anomalies without clinical relevance on their own, as complications during surgery or catheter-based interventions can occur. The aim of this chapter is to give a comprehensive and concise overview of coronary embryology and normal coronary artery anatomy, describe common variants of normal anatomy, and summarize typical patterns of anomalous coronary artery anatomy. We described three groups according to their frequency in the general population: normal, normal variant, and anomaly. We have further subdivided the anomalies based on their functional relevance: coronary artery anomalies with obligatory ischemia, without ischemia, or with exceptional ischemia. The chapter is complemented by images taken from invasive coronary angiography, coronary computed tomography, and cardiac magnetic resonance to help illustrate the nature of the anomalies.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Biomedical Engineering and Imaging SciencesKing’s College London, Guy’s and St Thomas’ Hospital NHS Foundation TrustLondonUK

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