An Online Packing Heuristic for the Three-Dimensional Container Loading Problem in Dynamic Environments and the Physical Internet

  • Chi Trung HaEmail author
  • Trung Thanh NguyenEmail author
  • Lam Thu BuiEmail author
  • Ran WangEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10200)


In this paper, we consider the online three-dimensional container loading problem. We develop a novel online packing algorithm to solve the three-dimensional bin packing problem in the online case where items are not known well in advance and they have to be packed in real-time when they arrive. This is relevant in many real-world scenarios such as automated cargo loading in warehouses. This is also relevant in the new logistics model of Physical Internet. The effectiveness of the online packing heuristic is evaluated on a set of generated data. The experimental results show that the algorithm could solve the 3D container loading problems in online fashion and is competitive against other algorithms both in the terms of running time, space utilization and the number of bins.


Dynamic optimization Online optimization Dynamic environments 3D bin packing problem 3D container loading problem Online packing heuristic Physical internet Benchmark problems 



This work is supported by a Newton Institutional Links grant funded by the UK BEIS via the British Council, a Newton Research Collaborations Programme (3) grant funded by the UK BEIS via the Royal Academy of Engineering, and a Seed-corn project funded by the Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport.

The authors thank anonymous reviews for their suggestions and contributions and corresponding editor for his/her valuable efforts.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Le Quy Don Technical UniversityHanoiVietnam
  2. 2.Liverpool John Moores UniversityLiverpoolUK

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