Advertisement

Endoscopic Bleeding Control

  • Johannes Wilhelm ReyEmail author
  • Arthur Hoffman
  • Daniel Teubner
  • Ralf Kiesslich
Chapter
  • 720 Downloads

Abstract

Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) can occur at different locations and different intensities throughout the intestine. Gastrointestinal bleeding is subdivided based on the location (upper, lower, middle GIB). The upper GI tract comprises the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (up to the papilla of Vateri). Middle GIB relates to that part of the GI tract located below the papilla Vateri up to the terminal ileum. Lower GIB is defined as a bleeding within the colon and rectum.

Upper GIB is diagnosed with esophagogastroduodenoscopy, middle GIB with capsule endoscopy or enteroscopy, and lower GIB with colonoscopy.

References

  1. Altraif I, Handoo FA, Aljumah A, et al. Effect of erythromycin before endoscopy in patients presenting with variceal bleeding: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Gastrointest Endosc. 2011;73:245–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Chan FK, Wong VW, Suen BY, et al. Combination of a cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor and a proton-pump inhibitor for prevention of recurrent ulcer bleeding in patients at very high risk: a double-blind, randomised trial. Lancet. 2007;369:1621–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Czernichow P, Hochain P, Nousbaum JB, et al. Epidemiology and course of acute upper gastro-intestinal haemorrhage in four French geographical areas. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000;12:175–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Forrest JA, Finlayson ND, Shearman DJ. Endoscopy in gastrointestinal bleeding. Lancet. 1974;2:394–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Gawrieh S, Shaker R. Variceal band ligation versus propranolol for primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding in cirrhosis. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2005;7:175–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hegade VS, Sood R, Mohammed N, et al. Modern management of acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Postgrad Med J. 2013;89:591–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Holster IL, Brullet E, Kuipers EJ, et al. Hemospray treatment is effective for lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopy. 2014;46:75–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Huang R, Pan Y, Hui N, et al. Polysaccharide hemostatic system for hemostasis management in colorectal endoscopic mucosal resection. Dig Endosc. 2014;26:63–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Imperiale TF, Birgisson S. Somatostatin or octreotide compared with H2 antagonists and placebo in the management of acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: a meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 1997;127:1062–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Kahi CJ, Jensen DM, Sung JJ, et al. Endoscopic therapy versus medical therapy for bleeding peptic ulcer with adherent clot: a meta-analysis. Gastroenterology. 2005;129:855–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Kwan V, Bourke MJ, Williams SJ, et al. Argon plasma coagulation in the management of symptomatic gastrointestinal vascular lesions: experience in 100 consecutive patients with long-term follow-up. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101:58–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Longstreth GF. Epidemiology and outcome of patients hospitalized with acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage: a population-based study. Am J Gastroenterol. 1997;92:419–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Mostafa I, et al. Management of acute variceal bleeding using hemostatic powder. UEG J. 2015;3:277–83.Google Scholar
  14. Peura DA, Lanza FL, Gostout CJ, et al. The American College of Gastroenterology Bleeding Registry: preliminary findings. Am J Gastroenterol. 1997;92:924–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Schepke M, Kleber G, Nurnberg D, et al. Ligation versus propranolol for the primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding in cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2004;40:65–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Schurr MO, Arezzo A, Ho CN, et al. The OTSC clip for endoscopic organ closure in NOTES: device and technique. Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol. 2008;17:262–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Smith LA, Morris AJ, Stanley AJ. The use of Hemospray in portal hypertensive bleeding; a case series. J Hepatol. 2014;60:457–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Sung JJ, Tsoi KK, Lai LH, et al. Endoscopic clipping versus injection and thermo-coagulation in the treatment of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a meta-analysis. Gut. 2007;56:1364–73.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Thomopoulos KC, Vagenas KA, Vagianos CE, et al. Changes in aetiology and clinical outcome of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding during the last 15 years. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004;16:177–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Yau AH, Ou G, Galorport C, et al. Safety and efficacy of Hemospray® in upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;28:72–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Zuccaro G Jr. Management of the adult patient with acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. American College of Gastroenterology. Practice Parameters Committee. Am J Gastroenterol. 1998;93:1202–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johannes Wilhelm Rey
    • 1
    Email author
  • Arthur Hoffman
    • 1
  • Daniel Teubner
    • 1
  • Ralf Kiesslich
    • 1
  1. 1.Helios Dr. Horst Schmidt Kliniken GmbH, Klinikum der Landeshauptstadt Wiesbaden, Klinik für Innere Medizin II Gastroenterologie, Hepatologie und EndokrinologieWiesbadenGermany

Personalised recommendations