Measurement of pO2 in a Pre-clinical Model of Rabbit Tumor Using OxyChip, a Paramagnetic Oxygen Sensor

  • H. Hou
  • N. Khan
  • P. KuppusamyEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 977)


The objective of this work was to establish a novel and robust technology, based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry, as a practical tool for measurement of tumor oxygen. Previously, we have reported on the development of oxygen-sensing paramagnetic crystals (LiNc-BuO) encapsulated in a biocompatible polymer, called OxyChip. In this report we present our recent data on the use of OxyChip for pO2 measurements in the tumor of a pre-clinical, large-animal rabbit model. The results establish that OxyChip is capable of noninvasive and repeated measurement of pO2 in a large animal model.


Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) Oximetry OxyChip Partial pressure of oxygen (pO2Rabbit VX2 tumor 



This work was supported by National Institutes of Health grant EB004031.


  1. 1.
    Kulkarni A, Kuppusamy P, Parinandi NL (2007) Oxygen, the lead actor in the pathophysiologic drama: enactment of the trinity of normoxia, hypoxia, and hyperoxia in disease and therapy. Antiox Redox Signal 9:1717–1730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ahmad R, Kuppusamy P (2010) Theory, instrumentation, and applications of electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry. Chem Rev 110:3212–3236CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Swartz HM, Hou H, Khan N et al (2014) Advances in probes and methods for clinical EPR oximetry. Adv Exp Med Biol 812:73–79CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pandian RP, Parinandi NL, Ilangovan G et al (2003) Novel particulate spin probe for targeted determination of oxygen in cells and tissues. Free Radic Biol Med 35:1138–1148CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Meenakshisundaram G, Eteshola E, Pandian RP et al (2009) Fabrication and physical evaluation of a polymer-encapsulated paramagnetic probe for biomedical oximetry. Biomed Microdevices 11:773–782CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chen JH, Chen JH, Lin YC et al (2004) Induction of VX2 carcinoma in rabbit liver: comparison of two inoculation methods. Lab Anim 38:79–84CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zhu M, Lin XA, Zha XM et al (2015) Evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of sequential therapy involving percutaneous microwave ablation in combination with 131I-Hypericin using the VX2 rabbit breast solid tumor model. PLoS One 10:1–16Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hou H, Khan N, Nagane M et al (2016) Skeletal muscle oxygenation measured by EPR oximetry using a highly sensitive polymer-encapsulated paramagnetic sensor. Adv Exp Med Biol 923:351–357CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sun CJ, Li C, Lv HB et al (2014) Comparing CT perfusion with oxygen partial pressure in a rabbit VX2 soft-tissue tumor model. J Radiat Res 55:183–190CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Levy EB, Johnson CG, Jacobs G et al (2015) Direct quantification and comparison of intratumoral hypoxia following transcatheter arterial embolization of VX2 liver tumors with different diameter microspheres. J Vasc Interv Radiol 26:1567–1573CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RadiologyGeisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth CollegeLebanonUSA

Personalised recommendations