Site Specificity of Changes in Cortical Oxyhaemoglobin Concentration Induced by Water Immersion

  • D. SatoEmail author
  • K. Yamashiro
  • Y. Yamazaki
  • A. Tsubaki
  • H. Onishi
  • N. Takehara
  • A. Maruyama
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 977)


Our previous studies have shown that water immersion (WI) changes sensorimotor processing and cortical excitability in the sensorimotor regions of the brain. The present study examined the site specificity of the brain activation during WI using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Cortical oxyhaemoglobin (O2Hb) levels in the anterior and posterior parts of the supplementary motor area (pre-SMA and SMA), primary motor cortex (M1), primary somatosensory cortex (S1), and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) were recorded using fNIRS (OMM-3000; Shimadzu Co.) before, during, and after WI in nine healthy participants. The cortical O2Hb levels in SMA, M1, S1, and PPC significantly increased during the WI and increased gradually along with the filling of the WI tank. These changes were not seen in the pre-SMA. The results show that WI-induced increases in cortical O2Hb levels are at least somewhat site specific: there was little brain activation in response to somatosensory input in the pre-SMA, but robust activation in other areas.


Water immersion Oxyhaemoglobin concentration Site specificity Sensorimotor fNIRS 



This study was supported by JSPS KAKENHI 15 K12712 and a Grant-in-Aid for Exploratory Research from Niigata University of Health and Welfare.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Sato
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • K. Yamashiro
    • 1
    • 2
  • Y. Yamazaki
    • 1
  • A. Tsubaki
    • 1
  • H. Onishi
    • 1
  • N. Takehara
    • 1
  • A. Maruyama
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Human Movement and Medical Sciences, Niigata University of Health and WelfareNiigataJapan
  2. 2.Department of Health and SportsNiigata University of Health and WelfareNiigataJapan

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