Advertisement

PFC Blood Oxygenation Changes in Four Different Cognitive Tasks

  • Tomotaka TakedaEmail author
  • Yoshiaki Kawakami
  • Michiyo Konno
  • Yoshiaki Matsuda
  • Masayasu Nishino
  • Yoshihiro Suzuki
  • Yoshiaki Kawano
  • Kazunori Nakajima
  • Toshimitsu Ozawa
  • Yoshihiro Kondo
  • Kaoru Sakatani
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 977)

Abstract

Aging often results in a decline in cognitive function, related to alterations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation. Maintenance of this function in an aging society is an important issue. Some practices/drills, moderate exercise, mastication, and a cognitive task itself could enhance cognitive function. In this validation study, before evaluating the effects of some drills on the elderly, we examined the neural substrate of blood oxygenation changes by the use of four cognitive tasks and fNIRS. Seven healthy volunteers (mean age 25.3 years) participated in this study. Each task session was designed in a block manner; 4 periods of rests (30 s) and 3 blocks of four tasks (30 s). The tasks used were: a computerized Stroop test, a Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, a Sternberg working memory paradigm, and a semantic verbal fluency task. The findings of the study are that all four tasks activated PFC to some extent, without laterality except for the verbal fluency task. The results confirm that NIRS is suitable for measurement of blood oxygenation changes in frontal brain areas that are associated with all four cognitive tasks.

Keywords

Cognitive function NIRS PFC Stroop test Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was partly supported by Japan Science and Technology Agency, under Strategic Promotion of Innovative Research and Development Program, and a Grant-in-Aid from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Sciences and Technology of Japan (23300247, 25463025, and 25463024).

References

  1. 1.
    Jimura K, Braver TS (2010) Age-related shifts in brain activity dynamics during task switching. Cereb Cortex 20:1420–1431CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Paxton JL, Barch DM, Racine CA et al (2008) Cognitive control, goal maintenance, and prefrontal function in healthy aging. Cereb Cortex 18:1010–1028CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ehlis AC, Herrmann MJ, Wagener A et al (2005) Multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy detects specific inferior-frontal activation during incongruent Stroop trials. Biol Psychol 69:315–331CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Langenecker SA, Nielson KA, Rao SM (2004) fMRI of healthy older adults during Stroop interference. NeuroImage 21:192–200CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sumitani S, Tanaka T, Tayoshi S et al (2006) Activation of the prefrontal cortex during the Wisconsin card sorting test as measured by multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy. Neuropsychobiology 53:70–76CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nyhus E, Barcelo F (2009) The Wisconsin card sorting test and the cognitive assessment of prefrontal executive functions: a critical update. Brain Cogn 71:437–451CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Heinzel S, Lorenz RC, Pelz P et al (2016) Neural correlates of training and transfer effects in working memory in older adults. NeuroImage 134:236–249CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Herrmann MJ, Ehlis AC, Fallgatter AJ (2003) Frontal activation during a verbal-fluency task as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. Brain Res Bull 61:51–56CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yeung MK, Sze SL, Woo J et al (2016) Altered frontal lateralization underlies the category fluency deficits in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: a near-infrared spectroscopy study. Front Aging Neurosci 8:59CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schlosser R, Hutchinson M, Joseffer S et al (1998) Functional magnetic resonance imaging of human brain activity in a verbal fluency task. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 64:492–498CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tucha L, Simpson W (2011) The role of time on task performance in modifying the effects of gum chewing on attention. Appetite 56:299–301CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hirano Y, Obata T, Takahashi H et al (2013) Effects of chewing on cognitive processing speed. Brain Cogn 81:376–381CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hoshi Y (2003) Functional near-infrared optical imaging: utility and limitations in human brain mapping. Psychophysiology 40:511–520CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jobsis FF (1977) Noninvasive, infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters. Science 198:1264–1267CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hoshi Y, Kobayashi N, Tamura M (2001) Interpretation of near-infrared spectroscopy signals: a study with a newly developed perfused rat brain model. J Appl Physiol 90:1657–1662PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shibusawa M, Takeda T, Nakajima K et al (2009) Functional near-infrared spectroscopy study on primary motor and sensory cortex response to clenching. Neurosci Lett 449:98–102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tanida M, Sakatani K, Takano R et al (2004) Relation between asymmetry of prefrontal cortex activities and the autonomic nervous system during a mental arithmetic task: near infrared spectroscopy study. Neurosci Lett 369:69–74CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Konno M, Takeda T, Kawakami Y et al (2016) Relationships between gum-chewing and stress. Adv Exp Med Biol 876:343–349CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tachtsidis I, Scholkmann F (2016) Erratum: Publisher's note: false positives and false negatives in functional near-infrared spectroscopy: issues, challenges, and the way forward. Neurophotonics 3:039801CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomotaka Takeda
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yoshiaki Kawakami
    • 1
  • Michiyo Konno
    • 1
  • Yoshiaki Matsuda
    • 1
  • Masayasu Nishino
    • 1
  • Yoshihiro Suzuki
    • 1
  • Yoshiaki Kawano
    • 1
  • Kazunori Nakajima
    • 1
  • Toshimitsu Ozawa
    • 1
  • Yoshihiro Kondo
    • 2
  • Kaoru Sakatani
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Oral Health and Clinical Science, Division of Sports DentistryTokyo Dental CollegeTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of General DentistryTokyo Dental College Chiba HospitalTokyoJapan
  3. 3.NEWCAT Research, Institute, Department of Electrical and Electronics EngineeringCollege of Engineering, Nihon UniversityTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations