Cardiomyopathies in Women

  • Vera Regitz-ZagrosekEmail author
  • Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner
  • Tobias Pfeffer


Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a potentially threatening disease in low and middle income countries, where healthcare systems and supervision during pregnancy are not well controlled and doctors are unaware of the disease. Symptoms and signs are typical for systolic HF and may develop rapidly, leading to severe acute systolic failure, ventricular arrhythmias or sudden cardiac death. Inhibiting prolactin secretion with Bromocriptine may offer a novel specific therapeutic option. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and probably also non-compaction and arrhythmogenic right ventricular CM have a greater prevalence in men than in women. This chapter contains expert information on sex differences in myocardial adaptation of the human heart.


Arrhythmias Bromocriptine Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) Gender myocardial adaptation Genetics Heart failure Heart transplantation Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) LV-assisted device (LVAD) Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) Pregnancy Prolactin Systolic heart failure 



I thank Arne Kühne for excellent management of the references and Martina Rudek and Sarah Lisa Müller for editorial support. The work was supported by grants from DZHK and from EU FP 7 (RADOX and EUGenMed).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vera Regitz-Zagrosek
    • 1
    Email author
  • Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner
    • 2
  • Tobias Pfeffer
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Gender in Medicine, Center for Cardiovascular Research, CharitéUniversitätsmedizin BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Center for Cardiology, Angiology and Molecular Cardiology, Medizinische Hochschule HannoverHannoverGermany

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