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Heart Failure in Women: Is There a Typical Female Type?

  • Arantxa Barandiarán Aizpurua
  • Vanessa van EmpelEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Patients with heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) make up 50% of all cases of HF and they are typically female, older, have a history of hypertension, and share multiple co-morbidities including obesity, diabetes and renal insufficiency. Complaints of reduced exercise tolerance and dyspnea on exertion are often attributed to ‘healthy’ aging, and not due to disease, leaving a significant percentage of the HFpEF population under-diagnosed. The aetiology is complex, heterogeneous and to a large extent unclarified. The appropriate diagnostic criteria and treatment options are still a challenge and under development.

Keywords

Diastolic dysfunction Dyspnea Echocardiography Endothelial dysfunction Fibrosis Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) Inflammation Myocardial stiffness 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arantxa Barandiarán Aizpurua
    • 1
  • Vanessa van Empel
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of CardiologyMaastricht University Medical CentreMaastrichtThe Netherlands

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