Stable Ischemic Heart Disease Beyond Stenoses: Coronary Microvascular Dysfunction

  • Suzette Elias-SmaleEmail author


At least half of (predominant) female patients with recurrent angina, without signs of obstructive CAD, have underlying coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD). Especially when signs of ischemia are present, this syndrome has an adverse prognosis. Patients with CMD have a characteristic symptom presentation, with a variety of traditional and non-traditional risk factors. Diagnostic testing and treatment are still a challenge, with much room for improvement.


Cardiac syndrome X Classification CMD Coronary flow reserve (CFR) Coronary microvascular disease (CMD) Coronary reactivity testing (CRT) Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) Microvascular angina Non-obstructive CAD (NOCAD) Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTDE) Vasospasm 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of CardiologyRadboud University Medical CenterNijmegenThe Netherlands

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