Female Manifestation of Acute Coronary Syndromes

  • Angela H. E. M. MaasEmail author
  • C. Noel Bairey Merz


The pathophysiology and clinical manifestation of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is different among men and women. Women more often have an ACS with ‘normal’ coronary arteries (MINOCA) than men. Despite, their mortality rates are two times higher. They also have more often variant types of ACS, such as spontaneous coronary artery dissections (SCAD) and a Takotsubo syndrome. Different types of ACS need a different approach in the acute phase and during the lifetime thereafter, which is still insufficiently addressed in the current guidelines.


Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) Bleeding risk Gender mortality Oral contraceptives Menopause Pregnancy Spontaneous coronary artery dissections (SCAD) Symptoms ACS Takotsubo syndrome Type II ACS Vaginal bleeding risk 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cardiology, Women’s Cardiac Health ProgramRadboud University Medical CenterNijmegenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Barbra Streisand Women’s Heart Center, Linda Joy Pollin Women’s Heart Health Program, Director Preventive Cardiac Center, Cedars-SinaiLos AngelesUSA

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