Ischemic Heart Disease in Women

  • Angela H. E. M. MaasEmail author
  • C. Noel Bairey Merz


Women have different manifestations of ischemic heart disease (IHD) than men throughout their lifetime. At middle-age they have more often non-obstructive coronary artery disease (NOCAD) and coronary vascular dysfunction rather than obstructive, focal coronary artery disease (CAD). Differences in underlying pathophysiology translate into a different presentation of symptoms among both genders. This needs a more gender-sensitive diagnostic and therapeutic approach as discussed in this chapter.


Coronary angiography Coronary artery disease (CAD) Coronary interventions Focal coronary artery disease Fractional flow reserve (FFR) Functional coronary testing Gender symptoms Gender diagnostic testing Ischemic heart disease (IHD) Medical treatment Menopause Non-obstructive CAD (NOCAD) Stable angina pectoris 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cardiology, Women’s Cardiac Health ProgramRadboud University Medical CenterNijmegenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Barbra Streisand Women’s Heart Center, Linda Joy Pollin Women’s Heart Health Program, Director Preventive Cardiac Center, Cedars-SinaiLos AngelesUSA

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