Female Aspects of Electrocardiography and Cardiac Arrhythmias

  • Angela H. E. M. MaasEmail author
  • Reinder Evertz


Normograms of the ECG are derived from the standard male patient. Women have a longer duration of the P-wave and PR-interval, while the QRS complex is smaller with a lower voltage. Non-specific ST-T changes are more often present in women than in men and vary by age. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia’s (PSVT) are later diagnosed in women than in men. Women with atrial fibrillation (AF) have more symptoms, undergo fewer cardioversions and have a worse quality of life than men. Women more often develop Torsades de pointes (TdP) with some antiarrhythmic drugs. Although implantable defibrillator devices (ICD) therapy in secondary prevention are equally beneficial in both genders, they are less often applied in women. The quality of mammograms may be reduced by the presence of an implanted medical device.


Anti-arrhythmic drugs Arrhythmias Atrial fibrillation (AF) Atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardias (AVNRT) Breast tissue CHA2DS2-VASc risk score Electrocardiogram (ECG) Implantable defibrillator devices (ICD) Mammograms Menstrual cycle Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) QT-interval Sex-hormones Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) Thrombo-embolic risk Torsade de pointes (TdP) 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cardiology, Women’s Cardiac Health ProgramRadboud University Medical CenterNijmegenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of CardiologyRadboud University Medical CenterNijmegenThe Netherlands

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