Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Women: What Makes It Different from Men

  • Angela H. E. M. MaasEmail author
  • C. Noel Bairey Merz


Sex-related differences in ischemic heart disease (IHD) and other manifestations of cardiovascular disease are currently not taken into account in the various existing risk scores. This often leads to an underestimation of the actual CVD risk in women. Traditional risk factors, female-specific risk factors and non-traditional risk variables are discussed in this chapter with their meaning in order to identify the high risk woman.


Diabetes mellitus Dyslipidemia Estrogen Female-specific risk factors Gestational diabetes Hypertensive pregnancy disorders (HPD) Ischemic heart disease (IHD) Lifestyle Medication adherence Menarche menopause Migraine Miscarriages Polycystic ovary syndrome Preeclampsia Premature CVD Non-traditional risk variables Sex-hormones Risk scores Statins Traditional risk factors 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cardiology, Women’s Cardiac Health ProgramRadboud University Medical CenterNijmegenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Barbra Streisand Women’s Heart Center, Linda Joy Pollin Women’s Heart Health Program, Director Preventive Cardiac Center, Cedars-SinaiLos AngelesUSA

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