Advertisement

Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Women: What Makes It Different from Men

  • Angela H. E. M. MaasEmail author
  • C. Noel Bairey Merz
Chapter

Abstract

Sex-related differences in ischemic heart disease (IHD) and other manifestations of cardiovascular disease are currently not taken into account in the various existing risk scores. This often leads to an underestimation of the actual CVD risk in women. Traditional risk factors, female-specific risk factors and non-traditional risk variables are discussed in this chapter with their meaning in order to identify the high risk woman.

Keywords

Diabetes mellitus Dyslipidemia Estrogen Female-specific risk factors Gestational diabetes Hypertensive pregnancy disorders (HPD) Ischemic heart disease (IHD) Lifestyle Medication adherence Menarche menopause Migraine Miscarriages Polycystic ovary syndrome Preeclampsia Premature CVD Non-traditional risk variables Sex-hormones Risk scores Statins Traditional risk factors 

References

  1. 1.
    Roth GA, Nguyen G, Forouzanfar MH, Mokdad AH, Naghavi M, Murray CJ. Estimates of global and regional premature cardiovascular mortality in 2025. Circulation. 2015;132(13):1270–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hulsegge G, Picavet HS, Blokstra A, Nooyens AC, Spijkerman AM, van der Schouw YT, et al. Today's adult generations are less healthy than their predecessors: generation shifts in metabolic risk factors: the Doetinchem Cohort Study. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2014;21(9):1134–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Towfighi A, Zheng L, Ovbiagele B. Sex-specific trends in midlife coronary heart disease risk and prevalence. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(19):1762–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Puymirat E, Simon T, Steg PG, Schiele F, Gueret P, Blanchard D, et al. Association of changes in clinical characteristics and management with improvement in survival among patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction. JAMA. 2012;308(10):998–1006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nichols M, Townsend N, Scarborough P, Rayner M. Cardiovascular disease in Europe: epidemiological update. Eur Heart J. 2013;34(39):3028–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    George J, Rapsomaniki E, Pujades-Rodriguez M, Shah AD, Denaxas S, Herrett E, et al. How Does Cardiovascular Disease First Present in Women and Men? Incidence of 12 Cardiovascular Diseases in a Contemporary Cohort of 1,937,360 People. Circulation. 2015;132(14):1320–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    George J, Rapsomaniki E, Pujades-Rodriguez M, Shah AD, Denaxas S, Herrett E, et al. How does cardiovascular disease first present in women andmen? Incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases in a contemporary cohort of1,937,360 people, Circulation. 2015;132:1320–8.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Leening MJ, Ferket BS, Steyerberg EW, Kavousi M, Deckers JW, Nieboer D, et al. Sex differences in lifetime risk and first manifestation of cardiovascular disease: prospective population based cohort study. BMJ. 2014;349:g5992.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jorstad HT, Colkesen EB, Boekholdt SM, Tijssen JG, Wareham NJ, Khaw KT, et al. Estimated 10-year cardiovascular mortality seriously underestimates overall cardiovascular risk. Heart. 2016;102(1):63–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Burke AP, Farb A, Malcom G, Virmani R. Effect of menopause on plaque morphologic characteristics in coronary atherosclerosis. Am Heart J. 2001;141(2 Suppl):S58–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gierach GL, Johnson BD, Bairey Merz CN, Kelsey SF, Bittner V, Olson MB, et al. Hypertension, menopause, and coronary artery disease risk in the Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;47(3 Suppl):S50–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shufelt CL, Johnson BD, Berga SL, Braunstein GD, Reis SE, Bittner V, et al. Timing of hormone therapy, type of menopause, and coronary disease in women: data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation. Menopause. 2011;18(9):943–50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Merz CN. The Yentl syndrome is alive and well. Eur Heart J. 2011;32(11):1313–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mosca L, Merz NB, Blumenthal RS, Cziraky MJ, Fabunmi RP, Sarawate C, et al. Opportunity for intervention to achieve American Heart Association guidelines for optimal lipid levels in high-risk women in a managed care setting. Circulation. 2005;111(4):488–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kotseva K, Wood D, De Backer G, De Bacquer D, Pyorala K, Keil U, et al. Cardiovascular prevention guidelines in daily practice: a comparison of EUROASPIRE I, II, and III surveys in eight European countries. Lancet. 2009;373(9667):929–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    EugenMed, Cardiovascular Clinical Study G, Regitz-Zagrosek V, Oertelt-Prigione S, Prescott E, Franconi F, et al. Gender in cardiovascular diseases: impact on clinical manifestations, management, and outcomes. Eur Heart J 2016;37(1):24–34.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mosca L, Linfante AH, Benjamin EJ, Berra K, Hayes SN, Walsh BW, et al. National study of physician awareness and adherence to cardiovascular disease prevention guidelines. Circulation. 2005;111(4):499–510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Leifheit-Limson EC, D'Onofrio G, Daneshvar M, Geda M, Bueno H, Spertus JA, et al. Sex differences in cardiac risk factors, perceived risk, and health care provider discussion of risk and risk modification among young patients with acute myocardial infarction: the VIRGO study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;66(18):1949–57.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dallongeville J, De Bacquer D, Heidrich J, De Backer G, Prugger C, Kotseva K, et al. Gender differences in the implementation of cardiovascular prevention measures after an acute coronary event. Heart. 2010;96(21):1744–9.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kotseva K, De Bacquer D, Jennings C, Gyberg V, De Backer G, Ryden L, et al. Time trends in lifestyle, risk factor control, and use of evidence-based medications in patients with Coronary Heart Disease in Europe: results from 3 EUROASPIRE surveys, 1999-2013. Glob Heart. 2016. (PMID: 26994643).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Prescott E, Hippe M, Schnohr P, Hein HO, Vestbo J. Smoking and risk of myocardial infarction in women and men: longitudinal population study. BMJ. 1998;316(7137):1043–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Messner B, Bernhard D. Smoking and cardiovascular disease: mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction and early atherogenesis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2014;34(3):509–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gold EB, Crawford SL, Avis NE, Crandall CJ, Matthews KA, Waetjen LE, et al. Factors related to age at natural menopause: longitudinal analyses from SWAN. Am J Epidemiol. 2013;178(1):70–83.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hayatbakhsh MR, Clavarino A, Williams GM, Sina M, Najman JM. Cigarette smoking and age of menopause: a large prospective study. Maturitas. 2012;72(4):346–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lubiszewska B, Kruk M, Broda G, Ksiezycka E, Piotrowski W, Kurjata P, et al. The impact of early menopause on risk of coronary artery disease (PREmature Coronary Artery Disease In Women—PRECADIW case-control study). Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2012;19(1):95–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kullo IJ, Rooke TW. Clinical Practice. Peripheral artery disease. N Engl J Med 2016;374(9):861–71.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fowkes FG, Rudan D, Rudan I, Aboyans V, Denenberg JO, McDermott MM, et al. Comparison of global estimates of prevalence and risk factors for peripheral artery disease in 2000 and 2010: a systematic review and analysis. Lancet. 2013;382(9901):1329–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Putaala J, Yesilot N, Waje-Andreassen U, Pitkaniemi J, Vassilopoulou S, Nardi K, et al. Demographic and geographic vascular risk factor differences in European young adults with ischemic stroke: the 15 cities young stroke study. Stroke. 2012;43(10):2624–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jahangir E, Lipworth L, Edwards TL, Kabagambe EK, Mumma MT, Mensah GA, et al. Smoking, sex, risk factors and abdominal aortic aneurysms: a prospective study of 18 782 persons aged above 65 years in the Southern Community Cohort Study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2015;69(5):481–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lederle FA, Larson JC, Margolis KL, Allison MA, Freiberg MS, Cochrane BB, et al. Abdominal aortic aneurysm events in the women's health initiative: cohort study. BMJ. 2008;337:a1724.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Iversen B, Jacobsen BK, Lochen ML. Active and passive smoking and the risk of myocardial infarction in 24,968 men and women during 11 year of follow-up: the Tromso Study. Eur J Epidemiol. 2013;28(8):659–67.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Twig G, Yaniv G, Levine H, Leiba A, Goldberger N, Derazne E, et al. Body-Mass Index in 2.3 Million Adolescents and Cardiovascular Death in Adulthood. N Engl J Med. 2016;374(25):2430–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Ogden CL. Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999-2010. JAMA. 2012;307(5):491–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wilson PW, D'Agostino RB, Sullivan L, Parise H, Kannel WB. Overweight and obesity as determinants of cardiovascular risk: the Framingham experience. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162(16):1867–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    De Smedt D, De Bacquer D, De Sutter J, Dallongeville J, Gevaert S, De Backer G, et al. The gender gap in risk factor control: effects of age and education on the control of cardiovascular risk factors in male and female coronary patients. The EUROASPIRE IV study by the European Society of Cardiology. Int J Cardiol. 2016;209:284–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Regitz-Zagrosek V, Lehmkuhl E, Mahmoodzadeh S. Gender aspects of the role of the metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Gender Med. 2007;4 Suppl B:S162–77.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chomistek AK, Manson JE, Stefanick ML, Lu B, Sands-Lincoln M, Going SB, et al. Relationship of sedentary behavior and physical activity to incident cardiovascular disease: results from the Women's Health Initiative. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;61(23):2346–54.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Oertelt-Prigione S, Seeland U, Kendel F, Rucke M, Floel A, Gaissmaier W, et al. Cardiovascular risk factor distribution and subjective risk estimation in urban women—the BEFRI study: a randomized cross-sectional study. BMC Med. 2015;13:52.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Eckel RH, Jakicic JM, Ard JD, de Jesus JM, Houston Miller N, Hubbard VS, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2014;129(25 Suppl 2):S76–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bushnell C, McCullough LD, Awad IA, Chireau MV, Fedder WN, Furie KL, et al. Guidelines for the prevention of stroke in women: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2014;45(5):1545–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Perk J, De Backer G, Gohlke H, Graham I, Reiner Z, Verschuren M, et al. European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (version 2012). The Fifth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (constituted by representatives of nine societies and by invited experts). Eur Heart J. 2012;33(13):1635–701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Piepoli MF, Hoes AW, Agewall S, Albus C, Brotons C, Catapano AL, et al. 2016 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: The Sixth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (constituted by representatives of 10 societies and by invited experts): Developed with the special contribution of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation (EACPR). Eur Heart J. 2016;37(29):2315–81.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Qureshi N, Armstrong S, Dhiman P, Saukko P, Middlemass J, Evans PH, et al. Effect of adding systematic family history enquiry to cardiovascular disease risk assessment in primary care: a matched-pair, cluster randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2012;156(4):253–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chow CK, Islam S, Bautista L, Rumboldt Z, Yusufali A, Xie C, et al. Parental history and myocardial infarction risk across the world: the INTERHEART Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;57(5):619–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Michos ED, Vasamreddy CR, Becker DM, Yanek LR, Moy TF, Fishman EK, et al. Women with a low Framingham risk score and a family history of premature coronary heart disease have a high prevalence of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Am Heart J. 2005;150(6):1276–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mulders TA, Taraboanta C, Franken LC, van Heel E, Klass G, Forster BB, et al. Coronary artery calcification score as tool for risk assessment among families with premature coronary artery disease. Atherosclerosis. 2016;245:155–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Patel MJ, de Lemos JA, Philips B, Murphy SA, Vaeth PC, McGuire DK, et al. Implications of family history of myocardial infarction in young women. Am Heart J. 2007;154(3):454–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hindieh W, Pilote L, Cheema A, Al-Lawati H, Labos C, Dufresne L, et al. Association between family history, a genetic risk score, and severity of coronary artery disease in patients with premature acute coronary syndromes. Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vasc Biol. 2016;36(6):1286–92.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ranthe MF, Carstensen L, Oyen N, Tfelt-Hansen J, Christiansen M, McKenna WJ, et al. Family history of premature death and risk of early onset cardiovascular disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;60(9):814–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Zoller B, Li X, Sundquist J, Sundquist K. Multiplex sibling history of coronary heart disease is a strong risk factor for coronary heart disease. Eur Heart J. 2012;33(22):2849–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Choi J, Daskalopoulou SS, Thanassoulis G, Karp I, Pelletier R, Behlouli H, et al. Sex- and gender-related risk factor burden in patients with premature acute coronary syndrome. Can J Cardiol. 2014;30(1):109–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Steegers EA, von Dadelszen P, Duvekot JJ, Pijnenborg R. Pre-eclampsia. Lancet. 2010;376(9741):631–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Smith GC, Wood AM, Pell JP, Hattie J. Recurrent miscarriage is associated with a family history of ischaemic heart disease: a retrospective cohort study. BJOG. 2011;118(5):557–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Drost JT, Arpaci G, Ottervanger JP, de Boer MJ, van Eyck J, van der Schouw YT, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors in women 10 years post early preeclampsia: the Preeclampsia Risk EValuation in FEMales study (PREVFEM). Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2012;19(5):1138–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ranthe MF, Diaz LJ, Behrens I, Bundgaard H, Simonsen J, Melbye M, et al. Association between pregnancy losses in women and risk of atherosclerotic disease in their relatives: a nationwide cohort studydagger. Eur Heart J. 2016;37(11):900–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Berger JS, Elliott L, Gallup D, Roe M, Granger CB, Armstrong PW, et al. Sex differences in mortality following acute coronary syndromes. JAMA. 2009;302(8):874–82.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cooney MT, Dudina AL, Graham IM. Value and limitations of existing scores for the assessment of cardiovascular risk: a review for clinicians. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;54(14):1209–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Damen JA, Hooft L, Schuit E, Debray TP, Collins GS, Tzoulaki I, et al. Prediction models for cardiovascular disease risk in the general population: systematic review. BMJ. 2016;353:i2416.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Goff Jr DC, Lloyd-Jones DM, Bennett G, Coady S, D'Agostino RB, Gibbons R, et al. 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the assessment of cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2014;129(25 Suppl 2):S49–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Graham I, Atar D, Borch-Johnsen K, Boysen G, Burell G, Cifkova R, et al. European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: full text. Fourth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and other societies on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (constituted by representatives of nine societies and by invited experts). European journal of cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation: official journal of the European Society of Cardiology, Working Groups on Epidemiology & Prevention and Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology. 2007;14 Suppl 2:S1–113.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Vasan RS, Kannel WB. Strategies for cardiovascular risk assessment and prevention over the life course: progress amid imperfections. Circulation. 2009;120(5):360–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Nasir K, Michos ED, Blumenthal RS, Raggi P. Detection of high-risk young adults and women by coronary calcium and National Cholesterol Education Program Panel III guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;46(10):1931–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Paixao AR, Ayers CR, El Sabbagh A, Sanghavi M, Berry JD, Rohatgi A, et al. Coronary artery calcium improves risk classification in younger populations. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2015;8(11):1285–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bamberg F, Sommer WH, Hoffmann V, Achenbach S, Nikolaou K, Conen D, et al. Meta-analysis and systematic review of the long-term predictive value of assessment of coronary atherosclerosis by contrast-enhanced coronary computed tomography angiography. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;57(24):2426–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Yeboah J, Young R, McClelland RL, Delaney JC, Polonsky TS, Dawood FZ, et al. Utility of nontraditional risk markers in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk assessment. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016;67(2):139–47.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
  67. 67.
    Verschuren WM, Boerma GJ, Kromhout D. Total and HDL-cholesterol in The Netherlands: 1987-1992. Levels and changes over time in relation to age, gender and educational level. Int J Epidemiol. 1994;23(5):948–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Abbey M, Owen A, Suzakawa M, Roach P, Nestel PJ. Effects of menopause and hormone replacement therapy on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and LDL-receptor activity. Maturitas. 1999;33(3):259–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Reddy Kilim S, Chandala SR. A comparative study of lipid profile and oestradiol in pre- and post-menopausal women. J Clin Diagn Res. 2013;7(8):1596–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Matthews KA, Meilahn E, Kuller LH, Kelsey SF, Caggiula AW, Wing RR. Menopause and risk factors for coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med. 1989;321(10):641–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Mora S, Glynn RJ, Hsia J, MacFadyen JG, Genest J, Ridker PM. Statins for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events in women with elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein or dyslipidemia: results from the Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) and meta-analysis of women from primary prevention trials. Circulation. 2010;121(9):1069–77.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Walsh JM, Pignone M. Drug treatment of hyperlipidemia in women. JAMA. 2004;291(18):2243–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kostis WJ, Cheng JQ, Dobrzynski JM, Cabrera J, Kostis JB. Meta-analysis of statin effects in women versus men. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59(6):572–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Truong QA, Murphy SA, McCabe CH, Armani A, Cannon CP, Group TS. Benefit of intensive statin therapy in women: results from PROVE IT-TIMI 22. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2011;4(3):328–36.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Harrington C, Horne Jr A, Hasan RK, Blumenthal RS. Statin therapy in primary prevention: new insights regarding women and the elderly. Am J Cardiol. 2010;106(9):1357–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Mizuno K, Nakaya N, Ohashi Y, Tajima N, Kushiro T, Teramoto T, et al. Usefulness of pravastatin in primary prevention of cardiovascular events in women: analysis of the Management of Elevated Cholesterol in the Primary Prevention Group of Adult Japanese (MEGA study). Circulation. 2008;117(4):494–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ridker PM, Danielson E, Fonseca FA, Genest J, Gotto Jr AM, Kastelein JJ, et al. Rosuvastatin to prevent vascular events in men and women with elevated C-reactive protein. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(21):2195–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Cholesterol Treatment Trialists C, Fulcher J, O'Connell R, Voysey M, Emberson J, Blackwell L, et al. Efficacy and safety of LDL-lowering therapy among men and women: meta-analysis of individual data from 174,000 participants in 27 randomised trials. Lancet. 2015;385(9976):1397–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Stone NJ, Robinson JG, Lichtenstein AH, Bairey Merz CN, Blum CB, Eckel RH, et al. 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2014;129(25 Suppl 2):S1–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kavousi M, Leening MJ, Nanchen D, Greenland P, Graham IM, Steyerberg EW, et al. Comparison of application of the ACC/AHA guidelines, adult treatment panel III guidelines, and European Society of Cardiology guidelines for cardiovascular disease prevention in a European cohort. JAMA. 2014;311(14):1416–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Pavlovic J, Greenland P, Deckers JW, Brugts JJ, Kavousi M, Dhana K, et al. Comparison of ACC/AHA and ESC guideline recommendations following trial evidence for statin use in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: results from the population-based Rotterdam study. JAMA Cardiol. 2016;1(6):708–13.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
  83. 83.
    Rosenson RS, Baker SK, Jacobson TA, Kopecky SL, Parker BA. The National Lipid Association's Muscle Safety Expert P. An assessment by the Statin Muscle Safety Task Force: 2014 update. J Clin Lipidol. 2014;8(3 Suppl):S58–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sathasivam S. Statin induced myotoxicity. Eur J Intern Med. 2012;23(4):317–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Thompson PD, Panza G, Zaleski A, Taylor B. Statin-associated side effects. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016;67(20):2395–410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ganga HV, Slim HB, Thompson PD. A systematic review of statin-induced muscle problems in clinical trials. Am Heart J. 2014;168(1):6–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Nissen SE, Stroes E, Dent-Acosta RE, Rosenson RS, Lehman SJ, Sattar N, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of Evolocumab vs Ezetimibe in patients with muscle-related statin intolerance: the GAUSS-3 randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2016;315(15):1580–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Hsue PY, Bittner VA, Betteridge J, Fayyad R, Laskey R, Wenger NK, et al. Impact of female sex on lipid lowering, clinical outcomes, and adverse effects in atorvastatin trials. Am J Cardiol. 2015;115(4):447–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Caspard H, Chan AK, Walker AM. Compliance with a statin treatment in a usual-care setting: retrospective database analysis over 3 years after treatment initiation in health maintenance organization enrollees with dyslipidemia. Clin Ther. 2005;27(10):1639–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Tomlinson SS, Mangione KK. Potential adverse effects of statins on muscle. Phys Ther. 2005;85(5):459–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Saxon DR, Eckel RH. Statin intolerance: a literature review and management strategies. Progr Cardiovasc Dis. 2016;59(2):153–64.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Taylor BA, Lorson L, White CM, Thompson PD. A randomized trial of coenzyme Q10 in patients with confirmed statin myopathy. Atherosclerosis. 2015;238(2):329–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Blumel JE, Palacios S, Legorreta D, Vallejo MS, Sarra S. Is fibromyalgia part of the climacteric syndrome? Maturitas. 2012;73(2):87–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Blumel JE, Cano A, Mezones-Holguin E, Baron G, Bencosme A, Benitez Z, et al. A multinational study of sleep disorders during female mid-life. Maturitas. 2012;72(4):359–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Rosano GM, Lewis B, Agewall S, Wassmann S, Vitale C, Schmidt H, et al. Gender differences in the effect of cardiovascular drugs: a position document of the Working Group on Pharmacology and Drug Therapy of the ESC. Eur Heart J. 2015;36(40):2677–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Group SC, Link E, Parish S, Armitage J, Bowman L, Heath S, et al. SLCO1B1 variants and statin-induced myopathy—a genomewide study. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(8):789–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Voora D, Shah SH, Spasojevic I, Ali S, Reed CR, Salisbury BA, et al. The SLCO1B1*5 genetic variant is associated with statin-induced side effects. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;54(17):1609–16.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Schirris TJJ, Renkema GH, Ritschel T, Voermans NC, Bilos A, van Engelen BGM, et al. Statin-induced myopathy is associated with mitochondrial complex III inhibition. Cell Metab. 2015;22(3):399–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Matthews A, Herrett E, Gasparrini A, Van Staa T, Goldacre B, Smeeth L, et al. Impact of statin related media coverage on use of statins: interrupted time series analysis with UK primary care data. BMJ. 2016;353:i3283.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Nielsen SF, Nordestgaard BG. Negative statin-related news stories decrease statin persistence and increase myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality: a nationwide prospective cohort study. Eur Heart J. 2016;37(11):908–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Newman CB, Tobert JA. Statin intolerance: reconciling clinical trials and clinical experience. JAMA. 2015;313(10):1011–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Robinson JG. Lower might be better - It matters how you get there, and in whom. Eur Heart J. 2016;37(17):1380–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Stroes ES, Thompson PD, Corsini A, Vladutiu GD, Raal FJ, Ray KK, et al. Statin-associated muscle symptoms: impact on statin therapy-European Atherosclerosis Society Consensus Panel Statement on Assessment, Aetiology and Management. Eur Heart J. 2015;36(17):1012–22.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Zhang Y, Leach MJ, Hall H, Sundberg T, Ward L, Sibbritt D, et al. Differences between male and female consumers of complementary and alternative medicine in a National US Population: a secondary analysis of 2012 NIHS Data. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:413173.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Sabatine MS, Giugliano RP, Wiviott SD, Raal FJ, Blom DJ, Robinson J, et al. Efficacy and safety of evolocumab in reducing lipids and cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(16):1500–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kazi DS, Moran AE, Coxson PG, Penko J, Ollendorf DA, Pearson SD, et al. Cost-effectiveness of PCSK9 inhibitor therapy in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. JAMA. 2016;316(7):743–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Cleland JG, Swedberg K, Follath F, Komajda M, Cohen-Solal A, Aguilar JC, et al. The EuroHeart Failure survey programme— a survey on the quality of care among patients with heart failure in Europe. Part 1: patient characteristics and diagnosis. Eur Heart J. 2003;24(5):442–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Mancusi C, Gerdts E, De Simone G, Abdelhai YM, Lonnebakken MT, Boman K, et al. Impact of isolated systolic hypertension on normalization of left ventricular structure during antihypertensive treatment (the LIFE study). Blood Press. 2014;23(4):206–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kingwell BA, Medley TL, Waddell TK, Cole TJ, Dart AM, Jennings GL. Large artery stiffness: structural and genetic aspects. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2001;28(12):1040–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Mao SS, Ahmadi N, Shah B, Beckmann D, Chen A, Ngo L, et al. Normal thoracic aorta diameter on cardiac computed tomography in healthy asymptomatic adults: impact of age and gender. Acad Radiol. 2008;15(7):827–34.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, Muntner P, Whelton PK, He J. Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide data. Lancet. 2005;365(9455):217–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Lloyd-Sherlock P, Beard J, Minicuci N, Ebrahim S, Chatterji S. Hypertension among older adults in low- and middle-income countries: prevalence, awareness and control. Int J Epidemiol. 2014;43(1):116–28.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Lewington S, Clarke R, Qizilbash N, Peto R, Collins R, Prospective SC. Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet. 2002;360(9349):1903–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Group SR, Wright Jr JT, Williamson JD, Whelton PK, Snyder JK, Sink KM, et al. A randomized trial of intensive versus standard blood-pressure control. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(22):2103–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Luscher TF, Sudano I. SPRINT: the race for optimal blood pressure control. Eur Heart J. 2016;37(12):937–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Hendriks SH, van Hateren KJ, Groenier KH, Houweling ST, Maas AH, Kleefstra N, et al. Sex differences in the quality of diabetes care in the Netherlands (ZODIAC-45). PLoS One. 2015;10(12):e0145907.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Franzini L, Ardigo D, Cavalot F, Miccoli R, Rivellese AA, Trovati M, et al. Women show worse control of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk factors than men: results from the MIND.IT Study Group of the Italian Society of Diabetology. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013;23(3):235–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Schroeder EB, Bayliss EA, Daugherty SL, Steiner JF. Gender differences in cardiovascular risk factors in incident diabetes. Womens Health Issues. 2014;24(1):e61–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Kautzky-Willer A, Handisurya A. Metabolic diseases and associated complications: sex and gender matter! European journal of clinical investigation. 2009;39(8):631–48.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Huxley R, Barzi F, Woodward M. Excess risk of fatal coronary heart disease associated with diabetes in men and women: meta-analysis of 37 prospective cohort studies. Bmj. 2006;332(7533):73–8.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Anand SS, Islam S, Rosengren A, Franzosi MG, Steyn K, Yusufali AH, et al. Risk factors for myocardial infarction in women and men: insights from the INTERHEART study. European heart journal. 2008;29(7):932–40.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Mulnier HE, Seaman HE, Raleigh VS, Soedamah-Muthu SS, Colhoun HM, Lawrenson RA, et al. Risk of myocardial infarction in men and women with type 2 diabetes in the UK: a cohort study using the General Practice Research Database. Diabetologia. 2008;51(9):1639–45.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Donahue RP, Rejman K, Rafalson LB, Dmochowski J, Stranges S, Trevisan M. Sex differences in endothelial function markers before conversion to pre-diabetes: does the clock start ticking earlier among women? The Western New York Study. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(2):354–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Kautzky-Willer A, Harreiter J, Pacini G. Sex and gender differences in risk, pathophysiology and complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Endoc Rev. 2016:er20151137.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Tamis-Holland JE, Lu J, Korytkowski M, Magee M, Rogers WJ, Lopes N, et al. Sex differences in presentation and outcome among patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease treated with contemporary medical therapy with or without prompt revascularization: a report from the BARI 2D Trial (Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;61(17):1767–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Novak M, Bjorck L, Welin L, Welin C, Manhem K, Rosengren A. Gender differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in 50-year-old Swedish men and women with hypertension born in 1953. J Hum Hypertens. 2013;27(1):56–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    de Simone G, Devereux RB, Chinali M, Lee ET, Galloway JM, Barac A, et al. Diabetes and incident heart failure in hypertensive and normotensive participants of the Strong Heart Study. J Hypertens. 2010;28(2):353–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Boonman-de Winter LJ, Rutten FH, Cramer MJ, Landman MJ, Liem AH, Rutten GE, et al. High prevalence of previously unknown heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2012;55(8):2154–62.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Fairweather D. Sex differences in inflammation during atherosclerosis. Clin Med Insights Cardiol. 2014;8(Suppl 3):49–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Paulus WJ, Tschope C. A novel paradigm for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: comorbidities drive myocardial dysfunction and remodeling through coronary microvascular endothelial inflammation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;62(4):263–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Koupenova M, Mick E, Mikhalev E, Benjamin EJ, Tanriverdi K, Freedman JE. Sex differences in platelet toll-like receptors and their association with cardiovascular risk factors. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2015;35(4):1030–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Major AS, Harrison DG. What fans the fire: insights into mechanisms of inflammation in atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus. Circulation. 2011;124(25):2809–11.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Pasterkamp G. Methods of accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetic patients. Heart. 2013;99(10):743–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Morling JR, Balkau B, Wild SH. Diabetes in women: a life-course approach. Menopause Int. 2013;19(2):87–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Monterrosa-Castro A, Blumel JE, Portela-Buelvas K, Mezones-Holguin E, Baron G, Bencosme A, et al. Type II diabetes mellitus and menopause: a multinational study. Climacteric. 2013;16(6):663–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Authors/Task Force M, Ryden L, Grant PJ, Anker SD, Berne C, Cosentino F, et al. ESC Guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases developed in collaboration with the EASD: the Task Force on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and developed in collaboration with the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Eur Heart J 2013;34(39):3035–3087.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Carpiuc KT, Wingard DL, Kritz-Silverstein D, Barrett-Connor E. The association of angina pectoris with heart disease mortality among men and women by diabetes status: the Rancho Bernardo Study. J Womens Health. 2010;19(8):1433–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Barrett-Connor E. The Rancho Bernardo Study: 40 years studying why women have less heart disease than men and how diabetes modifies women's usual cardiac protection. Global Heart. 2013;8(2).Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Regensteiner JG, Golden S, Huebschmann AG, Barrett-Connor E, Chang AY, Chyun D, et al. Sex differences in the cardiovascular consequences of diabetes mellitus: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2015;132(25):2424–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Esposito K, Chiodini P, Capuano A, Bellastella G, Maiorino MI, Rafaniello C, et al. Metabolic syndrome and postmenopausal breast cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. Menopause. 2013;20(12):1301–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Zhou Y, Zhang X, Gu C, Xia J. Influence of diabetes mellitus on mortality in breast cancer patients. ANZ J Surg. 2015;85(12):972–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Elkeles RS, Godsland IF, Feher MD, Rubens MB, Roughton M, Nugara F, et al. Coronary calcium measurement improves prediction of cardiovascular events in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes: the PREDICT study. Eur Heart J. 2008;29(18):2244–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Farkouh ME, Dangas G, Leon MB, Smith C, Nesto R, Buse JB, et al. Design of the Future REvascularization Evaluation in patients with Diabetes mellitus: Optimal management of Multivessel disease (FREEDOM) Trial. Am Heart J. 2008;155(2):215–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Kappetein AP, Head SJ, Morice MC, Banning AP, Serruys PW, Mohr FW, et al. Treatment of complex coronary artery disease in patients with diabetes: 5-year results comparing outcomes of bypass surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention in the SYNTAX trial. Eur J Cardio-Thoracic Surg. 2013;43(5):1006–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Investigators B. The final 10-year follow-up results from the BARI randomized trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;49(15):1600–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Group BDS, Frye RL, August P, Brooks MM, Hardison RM, Kelsey SF, et al. A randomized trial of therapies for type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(24):2503–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Hillis LD, Smith PK, Anderson JL, Bittl JA, Bridges CR, Byrne JG, et al. 2011 ACCF/AHA Guideline for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery. A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Developed in collaboration with the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;58(24):e123–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    van der Meer MG, van der Graaf Y, Schuit E, Peelen LM, Verschuren WM, Boer JM, et al. Added value of female-specific factors beyond traditional predictors for future cardiovascular disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016;67(17):2084–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Parikh NI, Jeppson RP, Berger JS, Eaton CB, Kroenke CH, LaBlanc ES, et al. Reproductive Risk Factors and Coronary Heart Disease in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Circulation. 2016;133(22):2149–58.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Elias-Smale SE, Gunal A, Maas AH. Gynecardiology: Distinct patterns of ischemic heart disease in middle-aged women. Maturitas. 2015;81(3):348–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Cirillo PM, Cohn BA. Pregnancy complications and cardiovascular disease death: 50-year follow-up of the Child Health and Development Studies pregnancy cohort. Circulation. 2015;132(13):1234–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Sorensen MB, Franks S, Robertson C, Pennell DJ, Collins P. Severe endothelial dysfunction in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome is only partially explained by known cardiovascular risk factors. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006;65(5):655–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Rao R, Sen S, Han B, Ramadoss S, Chaudhuri G. Gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and cytokine release: similarities and differences in endothelial cell function. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014;814:69–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Agatisa PK, Ness RB, Roberts JM, Costantino JP, Kuller LH, McLaughlin MK. Impairment of endothelial function in women with a history of preeclampsia: an indicator of cardiovascular risk. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004;286(4):H1389–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Freedman DS, Khan LK, Serdula MK, Dietz WH, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS, et al. The relation of menarcheal age to obesity in childhood and adulthood: the Bogalusa heart study. BMC Pediatr. 2003;3:3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Kivimaki M, Lawlor DA, Smith GD, Elovainio M, Jokela M, Keltikangas-Jarvinen L, et al. Association of age at menarche with cardiovascular risk factors, vascular structure, and function in adulthood: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(6):1876–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Remsberg KE, Demerath EW, Schubert CM, Chumlea WC, Sun SS, Siervogel RM. Early menarche and the development of cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescent girls: the Fels Longitudinal Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90(5):2718–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Colditz GA, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Speizer FE, Hennekens CH. A prospective study of age at menarche, parity, age at first birth, and coronary heart disease in women. Am J Epidemiol. 1987;126(5):861–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Pierce MB, Kuh D, Hardy R. The role of BMI across the life course in the relationship between age at menarche and diabetes, in a British Birth Cohort. Diabet Med. 2012;29(5):600–3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Lakshman R, Forouhi NG, Sharp SJ, Luben R, Bingham SA, Khaw KT, et al. Early age at menarche associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94(12):4953–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Canoy D, Beral V, Balkwill A, Wright FL, Kroll ME, Reeves GK, et al. Age at menarche and risks of coronary heart and other vascular diseases in a large UK cohort. Circulation. 2015;131(3):237–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Merz CN, Johnson BD, Berga SL, Braunstein GD, Azziz R, Yang Y, et al. Total estrogen time and obstructive coronary disease in women: insights from the NHLBI-sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE). J Womens Health. 2009;18(9):1315–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Carty CL, Spencer KL, Setiawan VW, Fernandez-Rhodes L, Malinowski J, Buyske S, et al. Replication of genetic loci for ages at menarche and menopause in the multi-ethnic Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study. Hum Reprod. 2013;28(6):1695–706.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Morris DH, Jones ME, Schoemaker MJ, Ashworth A, Swerdlow AJ. Familial concordance for age at menarche: analyses from the Breakthrough Generations Study. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2011;25(3):306–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    He C, Murabito JM. Genome-wide association studies of age at menarche and age at natural menopause. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2014;382(1):767–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Rotterdam EA-SPcwg. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Hum Reprod 2004;19(1):41–7.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Azziz R, Woods KS, Reyna R, Key TJ, Knochenhauer ES, Yildiz BO. The prevalence and features of the polycystic ovary syndrome in an unselected population. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89(6):2745–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Shen SH, Shen SY, Liou TH, Hsu MI, Chang YC, Cheng CY, et al. Obesity and inflammatory biomarkers in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2015;192:66–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Sprung VS, Jones H, Pugh CJ, Aziz NF, Daousi C, Kemp GJ, et al. Endothelial dysfunction in hyperandrogenic polycystic ovary syndrome is not explained by either obesity or ectopic fat deposition. Clin Sci. 2014;126(1):67–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Moran LJ, Misso ML, Wild RA, Norman RJ. Impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update. 2010;16(4):347–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Daan NM, Louwers YV, Koster MP, Eijkemans MJ, de Rijke YB, Lentjes EW, et al. Cardiovascular and metabolic profiles amongst different polycystic ovary syndrome phenotypes: who is really at risk? Fertil Steril. 2014;102(5):1444–51. e3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Fauser BC, Tarlatzis BC, Rebar RW, Legro RS, Balen AH, Lobo R, et al. Consensus on women's health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): the Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored 3rd PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Fertil Steril. 2012;97(1):28–38. e25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Merz CN, Shaw LJ, Azziz R, Stanczyk FZ, Sopko G, Braunstein GD, et al. Cardiovascular disease and 10-year mortality in postmenopausal women with clinical features of polycystic ovary syndrome. J Womens Health. 2016;25(9):875–81.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    McCartney CR, Marshall JC. Clinical Practice. Polycystic ovary syndrome. N Engl J Med 2016;375(1):54–64.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    de Wilde MA, Veltman-Verhulst SM, Goverde AJ, Lambalk CB, Laven JS, Franx A, et al. Preconception predictors of gestational diabetes: a multicentre prospective cohort study on the predominant complication of pregnancy in polycystic ovary syndrome. Hum Reprod. 2014;29(6):1327–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Pan ML, Chen LR, Tsao HM, Chen KH. Relationship between polycystic ovarian syndrome and subsequent gestational diabetes mellitus: a Nationwide Population-Based Study. PLoS One. 2015;10(10):e0140544.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Heida KY, Bots ML, de Groot CJ, van Dunne FM, Hammoud NM, Hoek A, et al. Cardiovascular risk management after reproductive and pregnancy-related disorders: a Dutch multidisciplinary evidence-based guideline. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016;23(17):1863–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Noussitou P, Monbaron D, Vial Y, Gaillard RC, Ruiz J. Gestational diabetes mellitus and the risk of metabolic syndrome: a population-based study in Lausanne, Switzerland Diabetes & metabolism 2005;31(4 Pt 1):361–9.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Bellamy L, Casas JP, Hingorani AD, Williams D. Type 2 diabetes mellitus after gestational diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2009;373(9677):1773–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Gunderson EP, Chiang V, Pletcher MJ, Jacobs DR, Quesenberry CP, Sidney S, et al. History of gestational diabetes mellitus and future risk of atherosclerosis in mid-life: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014;3(2):e000490.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Bryson CL, Ioannou GN, Rulyak SJ, Critchlow C. Association between gestational diabetes and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;158(12):1148–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Mosca L, Benjamin EJ, Berra K, Bezanson JL, Dolor RJ, Lloyd-Jones DM, et al. Effectiveness-based guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in women—2011 update: a guideline from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011;123(11):1243–62.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Landon MB, Gabbe SG. Gestational diabetes mellitus. Obstet Gynecol. 2011;118(6):1379–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Heida KY, Franx A, van Rijn BB, Eijkemans MJ, Boer JM, Verschuren MW, et al. Earlier age of onset of chronic hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus after a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy or gestational diabetes mellitus. Hypertension. 2015;66(6):1116–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Kharazmi E, Dossus L, Rohrmann S, Kaaks R. Pregnancy loss and risk of cardiovascular disease: a prospective population-based cohort study (EPIC-Heidelberg). Heart. 2011;97(1):49–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Wagner MM, Bhattacharya S, Visser J, Hannaford PC, Bloemenkamp KW. Association between miscarriage and cardiovascular disease in a Scottish cohort. Heart. 2015;101(24):1954–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Heida KY, Velthuis BK, Oudijk MA, Reitsma JB, Bots ML, Franx A, et al. Cardiovascular disease risk in women with a history of spontaneous preterm delivery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016;23(3):253–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Tranquilli AL, Brown MA, Zeeman GG, Dekker G, Sibai BM. The definition of severe and early-onset preeclampsia. Statements from the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy (ISSHP). Pregnancy Hypertension. 2013;3(1):44–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Cartwright JE, Fraser R, Leslie K, Wallace AE, James JL. Remodelling at the maternal-fetal interface: relevance to human pregnancy disorders. Reproduction. 2010;140(6):803–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Tranquilli AL, Dekker G, Magee L, Roberts J, Sibai BM, Steyn W, et al. The classification, diagnosis and management of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: a revised statement from the ISSHP. Pregnancy Hypertension. 2014;4(2):97–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Redman CW, Sacks GP, Sargent IL. Preeclampsia: an excessive maternal inflammatory response to pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999;180(2 Pt 1):499–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Sattar N, Greer IA. Pregnancy complications and maternal cardiovascular risk: opportunities for intervention and screening? BMJ. 2002;325(7356):157–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Bellamy L, Casas JP, Hingorani AD, Williams DJ. Pre-eclampsia and risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer in later life: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2007;335(7627):974.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Ray JG, Vermeulen MJ, Schull MJ, Redelmeier DA. Cardiovascular health after maternal placental syndromes (CHAMPS): population-based retrospective cohort study. Lancet. 2005;366(9499):1797–803.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Wikstrom AK, Haglund B, Olovsson M, Lindeberg SN. The risk of maternal ischaemic heart disease after gestational hypertensive disease. BJOG. 2005;112(11):1486–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    McDonald SD, Malinowski A, Zhou Q, Yusuf S, Devereaux PJ. Cardiovascular sequelae of preeclampsia/eclampsia: a systematic review and meta-analyses. Am Heart J. 2008;156(5):918–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Wilson BJ, Watson MS, Prescott GJ, Sunderland S, Campbell DM, Hannaford P, et al. Hypertensive diseases of pregnancy and risk of hypertension and stroke in later life: results from cohort study. BMJ. 2003;326(7394):845.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Kessous R, Shoham-Vardi I, Pariente G, Sergienko R, Sheiner E. Long-term maternal atherosclerotic morbidity in women with pre-eclampsia. Heart. 2015;101(6):442–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Veerbeek JH, Hermes W, Breimer AY, van Rijn BB, Koenen SV, Mol BW, et al. Cardiovascular disease risk factors after early-onset preeclampsia, late-onset preeclampsia, and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Hypertension. 2015;65(3):600–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Hausvater A, Giannone T, Sandoval YH, Doonan RJ, Antonopoulos CN, Matsoukis IL, et al. The association between preeclampsia and arterial stiffness. J Hypertens. 2012;30(1):17–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Goel A, Maski MR, Bajracharya S, Wenger JB, Zhang D, Salahuddin S, et al. Epidemiology and mechanisms of de novo and persistent hypertension in the postpartum period. Circulation. 2015;132(18):1726–33.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Aukes AM, De Groot JC, Wiegman MJ, Aarnoudse JG, Sanwikarja GS, Zeeman GG. Long-term cerebral imaging after pre-eclampsia. BJOG. 2012;119(9):1117–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Yarde F, Maas AH, Franx A, Eijkemans MJ, Drost JT, van Rijn BB, et al. Serum AMH levels in women with a history of preeclampsia suggest a role for vascular factors in ovarian aging. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99(2):579–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Visser S, Hermes W, Ket JC, Otten RH, van Pampus MG, Bloemenkamp KW, et al. Systematic review and metaanalysis on nonclassic cardiovascular biomarkers after hypertensive pregnancy disorders. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014;211(4):373 e1–9.Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Roberts JM, Hubel CA. The two stage model of preeclampsia: variations on the theme. Placenta. 2009;30 Suppl A:S32–7.Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Karumanchi SA, Granger JP. Preeclampsia and pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders. Hypertension. 2016;67(2):238–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Sattar N, Ramsay J, Crawford L, Cheyne H, Greer IA. Classic and novel risk factor parameters in women with a history of preeclampsia. Hypertension. 2003;42(1):39–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Drost JT, Maas AH, Holewijn S, Joosten LA, van Eyck J, van der Schouw YT, et al. Novel cardiovascular biomarkers in women with a history of early preeclampsia. Atherosclerosis. 2014;237(1):117–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Gaugler-Senden IP, Tamsma JT, van der Bent C, Kusters R, Steegers EA, de Groot CJ. Angiogenic factors in women ten years after severe very early onset preeclampsia. PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e43637.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Pruthi D, Khankin EV, Blanton RM, Aronovitz M, Burke SD, McCurley A, et al. Exposure to experimental preeclampsia in mice enhances the vascular response to future injury. Hypertension. 2015;65(4):863–70.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Roes EM, Raijmakers MT, Schoonenberg M, Wanner N, Peters WH, Steegers EA. Physical well-being in women with a history of severe preeclampsia. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2005;18(1):39–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Hoedjes M, Berks D, Vogel I, Franx A, Duvekot JJ, Steegers EA, et al. Poor health-related quality of life after severe preeclampsia. Birth. 2011;38(3):246–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Brusse IA, Duvekot JJ, Meester I, Jansen G, Rizopoulos D, Steegers EA, et al. Electroencephalography in normotensive and hypertensive pregnancies and subsequent quality of life. PLoS One. 2016;11(5):e0155299.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Mommersteeg PM, Drost JT, Ottervanger JP, Maas AH. Long-term follow-up of psychosocial distress after early onset preeclampsia: the Preeclampsia Risk EValuation in FEMales cohort study. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2016;37(3):101-9.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Drost JT, van der Schouw YT, Herber-Gast GC, Maas AH. More vasomotor symptoms in menopause among women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy diseases compared with women with normotensive pregnancies. Menopause. 2013;20(10):1006–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Spaan J, Peeters L, Spaanderman M, Brown M. Cardiovascular risk management after a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. Hypertension. 2012;60(6):1368–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Amaya-Amaya J, Montoya-Sanchez L, Rojas-Villarraga A. Cardiovascular involvement in autoimmune diseases. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:367359.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Mason JC, Libby P. Cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic inflammation: mechanisms underlying premature cardiovascular events in rheumatologic conditions. Eur Heart J. 2015;36(8):482-9c.Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    Charakida M, Besler C, Batuca JR, Sangle S, Marques S, Sousa M, et al. Vascular abnormalities, paraoxonase activity, and dysfunctional HDL in primary antiphospholipid syndrome. JAMA. 2009;302(11):1210–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Agca R, Heslinga SC, van Halm VP, Nurmohamed MT. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic inflammatory joint disorders. Heart. 2016;102(10):790–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Gianturco L, Bodini BD, Atzeni F, Colombo C, Stella D, Sarzi-Puttini P, et al. Cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases in females: the role of microvasculature and dysfunctional endothelium. Atherosclerosis. 2015;241(1):259–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Faccini A, Kaski JC, Camici PG. Coronary microvascular dysfunction in chronic inflammatory rheumatoid diseases. Eur Heart J. 2016;37(23):1799–806.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Powell J, Wojnarowska F, Winsey S, Marren P, Welsh K. Lichen sclerosus premenarche: autoimmunity and immunogenetics. Br J Dermatol. 2000;142(3):481–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Shoenfeld Y, Gerli R, Doria A, Matsuura E, Cerinic MM, Ronda N, et al. Accelerated atherosclerosis in autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Circulation. 2005;112(21):3337–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Sodergren A, Stegmayr B, Lundberg V, Ohman ML, Wallberg-Jonsson S. Increased incidence of and impaired prognosis after acute myocardial infarction among patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2007;66(2):263–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Mantel A, Holmqvist M, Jernberg T, Wallberg-Jonsson S, Askling J. Rheumatoid arthritis is associated with a more severe presentation of acute coronary syndrome and worse short-term outcome. Eur Heart J. 2015;36(48):3413–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Avina-Zubieta JA, Choi HK, Sadatsafavi M, Etminan M, Esdaile JM, Lacaille D. Risk of cardiovascular mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;59(12):1690–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Nochioka K, Biering-Sorensen T, Hansen KW, Sorensen R, Pedersen S, Jorgensen PG, et al. Long-term outcomes in patients with rheumatologic disorders undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a BAsel Stent Kosten-Effektivitats Trial-PROspective Validation Examination (BASKET-PROVE) sub-study. Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2016.Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    Kurth T, Gaziano JM, Cook NR, Logroscino G, Diener HC, Buring JE. Migraine and risk of cardiovascular disease in women. JAMA. 2006;296(3):283–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Spector JT, Kahn SR, Jones MR, Jayakumar M, Dalal D, Nazarian S. Migraine headache and ischemic stroke risk: an updated meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2010;123(7):612–24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Kurth T, Winter AC, Eliassen AH, Dushkes R, Mukamal KJ, Rimm EB, et al. Migraine and risk of cardiovascular disease in women: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2016;353:i2610.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Napoli R, Guardasole V, Zarra E, Matarazzo M, D'Anna C, Sacca F, et al. Vascular smooth muscle cell dysfunction in patients with migraine. Neurology. 2009;72(24):2111–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Malik R, Freilinger T, Winsvold BS, Anttila V, Vander Heiden J, Traylor M, et al. Shared genetic basis for migraine and ischemic stroke: a genome-wide analysis of common variants. Neurology. 2015;84(21):2132–45.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    van Hemert S, Breedveld AC, Rovers JM, Vermeiden JP, Witteman BJ, Smits MG, et al. Migraine associated with gastrointestinal disorders: review of the literature and clinical implications. Front Neurol. 2014;5:241.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Richards T, Montori VM, Godlee F, Lapsley P, Paul D. Let the patient revolution begin. BMJ. 2013;346:f2614.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    McManus RJ, Mant J, Haque MS, Bray EP, Bryan S, Greenfield SM, et al. Effect of self-monitoring and medication self-titration on systolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: the TASMIN-SR randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2014;312(8):799–808.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Arrieta A, Woods JR, Qiao N, Jay SJ. Cost-benefit analysis of home blood pressure monitoring in hypertension diagnosis and treatment: an insurer perspective. Hypertension. 2014;64(4):891–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cardiology, Women’s Cardiac Health ProgramRadboud University Medical CenterNijmegenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Barbra Streisand Women’s Heart Center, Linda Joy Pollin Women’s Heart Health Program, Director Preventive Cardiac Center, Cedars-SinaiLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations