Advertisement

The Twentieth Century (1900–1975)

  • Gabriel Tortella
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Economic History book series (PEHS)

Abstract

The loss of Cuba in 1898 caused serious turmoil in Catalonia, because it entailed the loss of a substantial part of its protected market for textiles. Catalan nationalism became strong and aggressive. This is the period when Spain knuckled under two military dictatorships: that of Primo de Rivera (1923–1930) and that of Franco (1939–1975). Although Spain remained neutral during the Great War, it suffered the inherent social tensions, especially those of the postwar crisis in Catalonia, which in the end precipitated the coming of the first dictatorship. Another cause of tension was the trouble in the Spanish Moroccan protectorate. Both played crucial roles in the coup that installed the first dictatorship, in the fall of the monarchy and the coming of the Republic in 1931, in the breakdown of the Republic in 1936, and in the loss of the civil war to Franco in 1939. After 20 years of quasi-stagnation, the Franco dictatorship undertook economic reform that brought about some 15 years of economic boom from 1960 onward. In spite of many later complaints, the Franco dictatorship benefited Catalonia economically, although it repressed (not suppressed) the use of the Catalan language and other cultural manifestations.

Keywords

Nationalism Republic Civil war Franco dictatorship Industrialization 

References

  1. ALCALÁ ZAMORA, N. (1977), Memorias. (Segundo texto de mis memorias). Barcelona: Planeta.Google Scholar
  2. AZAÑA, Manuel (1967), Obras completas. III. La Recuperación del Ideal Republicano, etc. México: Ediciones Oasis.Google Scholar
  3. AZAÑA, Manuel (1968), Obras completas, IV. Memorias políticas y de guerra. México: Ediciones Oasis.Google Scholar
  4. BEN-AMI, Shlomo (1983), Fascism from Above. The Dictatorship of Primo de Rivera in Spain. 1923–1930. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  5. BOLLOTEN, Burnett (1991), The Spanish Civil War, Revolution and Counterrevolution. Foreword by Stanley Payne. Chapel Hill, N.C.: The University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  6. CABANA, Francesc (coord.) (2006), Cien empresarios catalanes. Madrid: LID.Google Scholar
  7. CALVO SOTELO, José (1974), Mis servicios al Estado. Seis años de Gestión. Apuntes para la Historia. 2ª ed. Madrid: Instituto de Estudios de Administración Local.Google Scholar
  8. CAMBÓ, Francesc (1981), Memòries, 1876–1936. Barcelona: Alpha.Google Scholar
  9. CARRERAS, Albert and Xavier TAFUNELL (2005), (Eds), Estadística históricas de España, siglos XIX–XX. 3 vols. Bilbao: Fundación BBVA, 2005.Google Scholar
  10. Clark, Colin. (1957), The Conditions of Economic Progress. 3d. edn. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  11. GARCÍA RUIZ, José Luis (2003), ‘Los flujos financieros regionales en la España del siglo XX, una perspectiva desde la historia bancaria’, Revista de Estudios Regionales, 67, pp. 15–54.Google Scholar
  12. GARCÍA RUIZ, José Luis (2007), ‘Nuevos datos sobre flujos regionales de la banca española en el siglo XX’, Revista de Historia Industrial, 35, pp. 115–140.Google Scholar
  13. GONZÁLEZ CALBET, María Teresa (1987), La dictadura de Primo de Rivera, el Directorio Militar. Madrid: El Arquero.Google Scholar
  14. INSTITUT D’ESTUDIS CATALANS (1983), Els fluxos econòmics de Catalunya amb la resta d’España i la resta del món. La balança de pagaments de Catalunya 1975. Barcelona: Author (directed by Antoni Castells y Martí Parellada).Google Scholar
  15. JACKSON, G. (1967), The Spanish Republic and the Civil War, 1931–1939. Princeton, NJ.: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  16. JACKSON, G. (2008), Juan Negrín. Médico, socialista y jefe del Gobierno de la II República española. Barcelona: Crítica.Google Scholar
  17. KEYNES, John M. (1963), Essays in Persuasion. New York: W.W. Norton & Company Inc.Google Scholar
  18. KEYNES, John M. (2000), A Tract on Monetary Reform. New York: Prometheus Books.Google Scholar
  19. LLUCH, Ernest et al. (1962), ‘La balanza comercial interior de Cataluña’, Información Comercial Española, 241, pp. 291–299.Google Scholar
  20. MOLINERO, C. and YSÀS, P. (1990), ‘Los industriales catalanes durante el franquismo,’ Revista de Historia Económica, 8, pp. 105–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. PAYNE, S.G. (1987), The Franco Regime. 1936–1975. Madison, Wisconsin: Wisconsin University Press.Google Scholar
  22. PEERS, E.A. (1938), Catalonia infelix. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. PI i SUNYER, C. (1959 [1931]), El comerç de Catalunya amb Espanya. Mexico: El Club del Llibre Catalá.Google Scholar
  24. Payne, Stanley G. (1961). Falange. A History of Spanish Fascism. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  25. RIERA, I. (1998), Los catalanes de Franco. Barcelona: Plaza & Janés.Google Scholar
  26. TORTELLA, G. and C. E. NÚÑEZ (2011), El desarrollo de la España contemporánea. Historia económica de los siglos XIX y XX. 3d ed., Madrid: Alianza.Google Scholar
  27. TRYTHALL, J.W.D. (1970), Franco. A Biography. London: Hart-Davis.Google Scholar
  28. ULLMAN, J. C. (1968), The Tragic Week: a Study of Anticlericalism in Spain, 1875–1912. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabriel Tortella
    • 1
  1. 1.Universidad de AlcaláMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations