• Jens LowitzschEmail author
  • Sophie Dunsch
  • Iraj Hashi


SLs have structural features that differentiate them from ALMP start-ups: Firstly, they facilitate secondary employment since they involve outside investments, a condition for growth, and are designed to integrate additional employees. Secondly, they attract external financing as they may sell shares to outside investors without the risk of personal liability and, from the outside, they appear as conventional firms not bearing the stigma of being set up by unemployed persons—an important factor in applying for bank loans.

The SL programme, so successful in its home country, Spain, could be a fruitful addition to the labour market policies at the national as well as at the EU level. Since the concept is essentially based on the legal form of a conventional low-threshold limited liability company, there are no legal obstacles in national company law to prevent its adoption. The model has important benefits that make it particularly suitable for combination with existing national start-up incentives for the unemployed.


Summary of Findings Labour market policies Policy recommendations 

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© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Europa Universität ViadrinaFrankfurt (Oder)Germany
  2. 2.Business School (Stoke Campus)Staffordshire UniversityStoke on TrentUK

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