Advertisement

Inequality in Expenditures on Education

  • Vani Kant Borooah
Chapter

Abstract

Borooah examines expenditure on education. He argues that inequality in educational expenditure can lead to inequality in educational outcomes since those who are able to spend more do better educationally, both in terms of educational performance and in terms of admission to select institutions. Particularly pernicious in this regard is expenditure on private coaching the main purpose of which is to augment education received at school. Such expenditure is capable of generating “false positives”: children who are not very bright can be coached to pass a test. Group-preference policies are needed to correct for the superior performance engendered by superior resources. Borooah argues, however, that group-preference should be based on economic need and not upon caste or racial identity.

Keywords

Education Expenditures Bayes’ Theorem False Positives Group-Preference Inequality Decomposition 

References

  1. Aitken, C. (1996), “Lies, Damned Lies, and Expert Witnesses”, Mathematics Today, 32: 76–80.Google Scholar
  2. Altbach, P. (2006), “The Achilles Heel of India’s High-Tech Future: World-Class Universities”, International Higher Education, 44: 16–17.Google Scholar
  3. Ambedkar, B. R. (1987), “The Hindu Social Order: Its Essential Features” In V. Moon (ed.). Dr. Babasheb Ambedkar: Writings and Speeches, 95–115.Google Scholar
  4. Borooah, V.K. (2004), “Gender Bias Among Children in India in their Diet and Immunisation Against Disease”, Social Science and Medicine, 58: 1719–1731Google Scholar
  5. Borooah, V.K., (2010), “On the Risks of Belonging to Disadvantaged Groups: A Bayesian Analysis of Labour Market Outcomes” In Rakesh Basant and Abusaleh Shariff (eds). Handbook of Muslims in India, New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Borooah, V.K., and Knox, C.G. (2015), The Economics of Schooling in a Divided Society, Basingstoke: Palgrave MacmillanCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fei, J.C.H., Ranis, G., and Kuo, S.W.Y. (1978), “Growth and the Family Distribution of Income by Factor Components”, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 92: 17–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fields, G.S. (1979), “Income Inequality in Urban Colombia: A Decomposition Analysis”, Review of Income and Wealth, 25: 327–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Garcia-Peñalosa, C., and Orgiazzi, E. (2013), “Factor Components of Inequality: A Cross-Country Study”, Review of Income and Wealth, 59: 689–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kuznets, S. (1955), “Economic Growth and Income Inequality”, American Economic Review, 45: 1–28.Google Scholar
  11. Long, J.S., and Freese, J. (2014), Regression Models for Categorical Dependent Variables using Stata, Stata Press: College Station, Tx.Google Scholar
  12. Mlodinow, L. (2009), The Drunkard’s Walk, London: Penguin Books,.Google Scholar
  13. Morduch, J., and Sicular, T. (2002), “Rethinking Inequality Decomposition, with Evidence from China”, The Economic Journal, 112: 93–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Pyatt, G. C., Chen, C., and Fei, J. (1980), “The Distribution of Income by Factor Components”, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 95: 451–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Rothstein, J, and Yoon, A. (2008), “Affirmative Action in Law School Admissions: What Do Racial Preferences Do?”, University of Chicago Law Review, 75: 649–714.Google Scholar
  16. Shorrocks, A.F. (1982), “Inequality Decomposition by Factor Components”, Econometrica, 50: 193–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Shorrocks, A.F. (1983), “The Impact of Income Components on the Distribution of Family Incomes”, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 98: 311–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Singh, A.K. (2013), “Defying the Odds: the Triumphs and Tragedies of Dalit and Adivasi Students in Higher Education in India” In S. Deshpande and U. Zacharias (edited), Beyond Inclusion: the Practice of Equal Access in Indian Higher Education, New Delhi: Routledge, 174–204.Google Scholar
  19. Thompson, W.C., and Schumann, E.L. (1987), “Interpretation of Statistical Evidence in Criminal Trials: the Prosecutor’s Fallacy and the Defence Attorney’s Fallacy”, Law and Human Behavior, 11: 167–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Thorat, S., Tagade, N., and Naik, A.K. (2016), “Prejudice Against Reservation Policies: How and Why?” In Economic and Political Weekly, 61–69.Google Scholar
  21. Vishnu, U. (2015), “They get leg-up at JEE but hard landing on campus” In Indian Express, 6 August.Google Scholar
  22. Zackrisson, S., Anderson, I., Janzon, L., Manjer, J., and Garne, J.P. (2006), “Rate of Over-Diagnosis of Breast Cancer 15 Years after End of Malmo Mamographic Screening”, British Medical Journal, 33: 689–692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vani Kant Borooah
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Economics & PoliticsUniversity of UlsterNewtownabbeyUnited Kingdom

Personalised recommendations