• John E. Spillan
  • Nicholas Virzi


The Pacific Alliance is a regional trade initiative of four countries: Peru, Mexico, Colombia, and Chile. It was established in 2011 with the Declaración de Lima. According to it, the members agreed to establish a trade alliance with aims to Asia and an economic integration with the Mercado Integrado Lationamericano (MILA). These four countries have a population of 227.98 million, produce $1,749.73 billion and have a GDP per capita of $7,674.85, in current, nominal dollar terms. The primary aim of the Pacific Alliance (Pacific Alliance) is to promote and improve trade among Latin American countries and also to become a major trade group among the worldwide trade entities.


  1. Alianza del Pacifico. (2016).
  2. Authors’ calculations using IMF data. International Monetary Fund. World Economic Outlook databases. (2016). Online database. Accessed October 2016.
  3. George, S. (2014). The Pacific Pumas: An emerging model for emerging markets. Washington: Bertelsmann Foundation. Scholar
  4. International Monetary Fund. (2016). World Economic Outlook, online database. Accessed October 2016.
  5. Kotschwar, B. & Schott, J. J. (2013). The next bigh thing? The trans-Pacific partnership and Latin America.
  6. Perry, G. (2010). Financial integration in the Pacific Alliance (p. 3), IDB Monograph Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Developmental Bank.Google Scholar
  7. Spillan, J., Virzi, N., & Garita, M. (2014). Doing business in Latin America: Challenges and opportunities. New York: Routledge PublishersGoogle Scholar
  8. The Pacific Alliance Consolidating Regional Integration and Cooperation. (2016).,8827.html.
  9. Villareal, A. (2016). The Pacific Alliance: A trade integration initiative in Latin America. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service. Available in:
  10. WEF. (2016). The Global Competitive Report 2016-2017,
  11. World Trade Statistical Review. (2016) p. 19. Available in:

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • John E. Spillan
    • 1
  • Nicholas Virzi
    • 2
  1. 1.University of North Carolina at PembrokePinehurstUSA
  2. 2.Universidad Pontificia de SalamancaSanta Catarina PinulaGuatemala

Personalised recommendations