Prognosis of TGA

  • A. J. Larner


This chapter considers the prognosis of TGA. Generally this is benign, although some mild deficits of memory function may persist as well as a gap for the period of TGA. There is a finite recurrence rate, around 3–6% per year, and it may possibly be the case that recurrent TGA is not as benign as single-episode TGA.


Cognition Recurrent TGA Epilepsy 


  1. Agosti C, Akkawi NM, Borroni B, Padovani A. Recurrency in transient global amnesia: a retrospective study. Eur J Neurol. 2006;13:986–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Auyeung M, Tsoi TH, Cheung CM, et al. Association of diffusion weighted imaging abnormalities and recurrence in transient global amnesia. J Clin Neurosci. 2011;18:531–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bender MB. Syndrome of isolated episode of confusion with amnesia. J Hillside Hosp. 1956;5:212–5.Google Scholar
  4. Bender MB. Single episode of confusion with amnesia. Bull NY Acad Med. 1960;36:197–207.Google Scholar
  5. Berlit P. Successful prophylaxis of recurrent transient global amnesia with metoprolol. Neurology. 2000;55:1937–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bermejo PE, García-Cobos E. Recurrent post-coital transient global amnesia. Rev Neurol. 2010;51:316–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Borroni B, Agosti C, Brambilla C, et al. Is transient global amnesia a risk factor for amnestic mild cognitive impairment? J Neurol. 2004;251:1125–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bucuk M, Tomic Z, Tuskan-Mohar L, Bonifacic D, Bralic M, Jurjevic A. Recurrent transient global amnesia at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 2008;9:239–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Cattaino G, Querin F, Pomes A, Piazza P. Transient global amnesia. Acta Neurol Scand. 1984;70:385–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen ST, Tang LM, Hsu WC, Lee TH, Ro LS, Wu YR. Clinical features, vascular risk factors, and prognosis for transient global amnesia in Chinese patients. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 1999;8:295–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Colombo A, Scarpa M. Transient global amnesia: pathogenesis and prognosis. Eur Neurol. 1988;28:111–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Daniel ES. Early diagnosis and treatment of dementia presenting as transient global amnesia in a 76-year-old man. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;6:248–51.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Daniel BT. Transient global amnesia. Print version and ebook: Amazon; 2012.Google Scholar
  14. Fisher CM, Adams RD. Transient global amnesia. Acta Neurol Scand. 1964;40(Suppl 9):1–81.Google Scholar
  15. Gallassi R, Stracciari A, Morreale A, Lorusso S, Rebucci GG, Lugaresi E. Transient global amnesia: neuropsychological findings after single and multiple attacks. Eur Neurol. 1993;33:294–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Gandolfo C, Caponnetto C, Conti M, Dagnino N, Del Sette M, Primavera A. Prognosis of transient global amnesia: a long-term follow-up study. Eur Neurol. 1992;32:52–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Gonzalez-Martinez V, Comte F, de Verbizier D, Carlander B. Transient global amnesia: concordant hippocampal abnormalities on positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Arch Neurol. 2010;67:510–1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Graff-Radford J, Josephs KA. Primary progressive aphasia and transient global amnesia. Arch Neurol. 2012;69:401–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Grande LA, Loeser JD, Samil A. Recurrent transient global amnesia with intrathecal baclofen. Anesth Analg. 2008;106:1284–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Guillery-Girard B, Desgranges B, Urban C, Piolino P, de la Sayette V, Eustache F. The dynamic time course of memory recovery in transient global amnesia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75:1532–40.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Guillery-Girard B, Quinette P, Desgranges B, et al. Long-term memory following transient global amnesia: an investigation of episodic and semantic memory. Acta Neurol Scand. 2006;114:329–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Guyotat MM, Courjon J. Les ictus amnésiques. J Med Lyon. 1956;37:697–701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hinge HH, Jensen TS, Kjaer M, Marquardsen J, de Fine Olivarius B. The prognosis of transient global amnesia. Results of a multicenter study. Arch Neurol. 1986;43:673–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Hodges JR. Transient amnesia. Clinical and neuropsychological aspects. London: WB Saunders; 1991.Google Scholar
  25. Hodges JR, Oxbury SM. Persistent memory impairment following transient global amnesia. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 1990;12:904–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Hodges JR, Warlow CP. Syndromes of transient amnesia: towards a classification. A study of 153 cases. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1990;53:834–43.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Jäger T, Szabo K, Griebe M, Bazner H, Moller H, Hennerici MG. Selective disruption of hippocampus-mediated recognition memory processes after episodes of transient global amnesia. Neuropsychologia. 2009;47:70–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Jensen TS, de Fine Olivarius B. Transient global amnesia – its clinical and pathophysiological basis and prognosis. Acta Neurol Scand. 1981;63:220–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Kapur N, Millar J, Abbott P, Carter M. Recovery of function processes in human amnesia: evidence from transient global amnesia. Neuropsychologia. 1998;36:99–107.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Lampl Y, Sadeh M, Lorberboym M. Transient global amnesia – not always a benign process. Acta Neurol Scand. 2004;110:75–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Lane RJ. Recurrent coital amnesia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1997;63:260.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Le Pira F, Giuffrida S, Maci T, Reggio E, Zappala G, Perciavalle V. Cognitive findings after transient global amnesia: role of prefrontal cortex. Appl Neuropsychol. 2005;12:212–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Lou H. Repeated episodes of transient global amnesia. Acta Neurol Scand. 1968;44:612–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Mazzucchi A, Moretti G, Caffarra P, Parma M. Neuropsychological functions in the follow-up of transient global amnesia. Brain. 1980;103:161–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Melo TP, Ferro JM, Paiva T. Are brief or recurrent transient global amnesias of epileptic origin? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1994;57:622–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Miller JW, Petersen RC, Metter EJ, Millikan CH, Yanagihara T. Transient global amnesia: clinical characteristics and prognosis. Neurology. 1987;37:733–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Moon Y, Moon WJ, Han SH. The structural connectivity of the recurrent transient global amnesia. Acta Neurol Scand. 2016;134:160–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Mueller HR. Transient global amnesia. With a contribution to its prognosis [in German]. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax. 1989;78:970–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Nakada T, Kwee IL, Fujii Y, Knight RT. High-field, T2 reversed MRI of the hippocampus in transient global amnesia. Neurology. 2005;64:1170–4.Google Scholar
  40. Naranjo-Fernandez C, Arjona A, Quiroga-Subirana P, et al. Transient topographical amnesia: a description of a series of eight case [in Spanish]. Rev Neurol. 2010;50:217–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Nausieda PA, Sherman IV. Long-term prognosis in transient global amnesia. JAMA. 1979;241:392–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Noël A, Quinette P, Dayan J, et al. Influence of patients’ emotional state on the recovery processes after a transient global amnesia. Cortex. 2011;47:981–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Pantoni L, Bertini E, Lamassa M, Pracucci G, Inzitari D. Clinical features, risk factors, and prognosis in transient global amnesia: a follow-up study. Eur J Neurol. 2005;12:350–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Petersen RC, Smith GE, Waring SC, Ivnik RJ, Tangalos EG, Kokmen E. Mild cognitive impairment: clinical characterization and outcome. Arch Neurol. 1999;56:303–8. [Erratum Arch Neurol. 1999;56:760].CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Quinette P, Guillery-Girard B, Dayan J, de la Sayette V, Marquis S, Viader F, Desgranges B, Eustache F. What does transient global amnesia really mean? Review of the literature and thorough study of 142 cases. Brain. 2006;129:1640–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Roman-Campos G, Poser CM, Wood FB. Persistent retrograde memory deficit after transient global amnesia. Cortex. 1980;16:509–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Rumpl E, Rumpl H. Recurrent transient global amnesia in a case with cerebrovascular lesions and livedo reticularis (Sneddon syndrome). J Neurol. 1979;221:127–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Schakelaar JH. Two attacks of transient global amnesia within a year: a case report. Cases J. 2009;2:6309.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Sealove BA, Aledort LM, Stacy CB, Halperin JL. Recurrent orthostatic global amnesia in a patient with postoperative hyperfibrinogenemia. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2008;17:241–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Shindo A, Satoh M, Kajikawa H, Ito N, Miyamura H, Tomimoto H. Recurrent transient topographical amnesia: a patient with frequent episodes. J Neurol. 2011;258:1566–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Stracciari A, Lorusso S, Pazzaglia P. Transient topographical amnesia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1994;57:1423–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Stracciari A, Lorusso S, Delli Ponti A, Mattarozzi K, Tempestini A. Cognitive functions after transient topographical amnesia. Eur J Neurol. 2002;9:401–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Tassinari CA, Ciarmatori C, Alesi C, et al. Transient global amnesia as a postictal state from recurrent partial seizures. Epilepsia. 1991;32:882–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Toledo M, Pujadas F, Purroy F, Lara N, Quintana M, Alvarez-Sabin J. Recurrent transient global amnesia, a manifestation of ischemic cerebrovascular disease [in Spanish]. Med Clin (Barc). 2005;125:361–5. [Erratum Med Clin (Barc). 2006;126:316].CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Uttner I, Weber S, Freund W, Schmitz B, Ramspott M, Huber R. Transient global amnesia – full recovery without persistent cognitive impairment. Eur Neurol. 2007;58:146–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Vyhnalek M, Bojar M, Jerabek J, Hort J. Long lasting recurrent familiar [sic] transient global amnesia after betablocker withdrawal: case report. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2008;29:44–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. J. Larner
    • 1
  1. 1.Cognitive Function ClinicWalton Centre for Neurology and NeurosurgeryLiverpoolUK

Personalised recommendations