Perspectives of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in Growth Enhancement and Sustainable Production of Tomato



Tomato is an important horticultural product with a high content of bioactive compounds such as folate, ascorbate, polyphenols, and carotenoids and many other essential nutrients. Due to these, tomatoes are considered extremely valuable to human health. To optimize tomato production, chemical fertilizers and pesticides are frequently used. These chemicals are however, destructive for both crops and soil ecosystems. A reduction of these detrimental practices is therefore urgently required to protect both tomato and environments from damaging effects of agrochemicals. In this context, microbial inoculation especially those consisting of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) could be used to replace chemical fertilizers/pesticides. Also, PGPR can be integrated with such chemical practices to reduce their application in tomato cultivation. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria that naturally inhabit the rhizosphere stimulate the growth and development of tomato plants directly or indirectly via availability of many essential plant nutrients, phytohormones, or through suppression/destruction of plant diseases. A better understanding of the plant growth-promotion activity of these bacterial strains is likely to enhance the production of safe, fresh, and high-quality tomatoes while reducing chemical inputs in different agronomic setups.


Tomato Lycopene Rhizosphere PGPR Biocontrol 


  1. Abbamondi GR, Tommonaro G, Weyens N (2016) Plant growth-promoting effects of rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria associated with different tomato cultivars and new tomato hybrids. Chem Biol Technol Agric 3:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdalla SA, Soad AAA, Elshiekh AI, Ahmed MEN (2014) In vitro screening of Bacillus isolates for biological control of early blight disease of tomato in Shambat soil. W J Agric Res 2:47–50Google Scholar
  3. Adewuyi GO, Ademoyegun OT (2008) Analysis of vitamin C and major carotenoids in different fractions of tomatoes. Proc Int Conf Sci Tech Africa 2:65–73Google Scholar
  4. Aeron A, Pandey P, Kumar S, Maheshwari DK (2011) Emerging role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. In: Maheshwari DK (ed) Bacteria in agrobiology: crop ecosystem. Springer Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 1–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahmad F, Ahmad I, Khan MS (2008) Screening of free-living rhizospheric bacteria for their multiple plant growth promoting activities. Microbiol Res 163:173–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahmad M, Zahir ZA, Khalid M (2013) Efficacy of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains to improve physiology, ionic balance and quality of mung bean under salt-affected conditions on farmer’s fields. Plant Physiol Biochem 63:170–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ahmad E, Zaidi A, Khan MS (2016) Effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on the performance of greengram under field conditions. JJBS 9(2):79–88Google Scholar
  8. Ahmed A, Hasnain S (2010) Auxin producing Bacillus sp.: auxin quantification and effect on the growth Solanum tuberosum. Pure Appl Chem 82:313–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ahmed L, Martin-Diana AB, Rico D, Barry-Ryan C (2011) The antioxidant properties of whey permeate treated fresh-cut tomatoes. Food Chem 24:1451–1457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Akram W, Anjum T, Ali B (2015) Co-cultivation of tomato with two Bacillus strains: effects on growth and yield. J Anim Plant Sci 25:1644–1651Google Scholar
  11. Akram W, Mahboob A, Javed AA (2013) Bacillus thuringiensis strain 199 can induce systemic resistance in tomato against Fusarium wilt. Eur J Microbiol Immunol 3:275–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ali S, Charles TC, Glick BR (2012) Delay of flower senescence by bacterial endophytes expressing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. J Appl Microbiol 113:1139–1144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Almaghrabi OA, Massoud S, Abdelmoneim TS (2013) Influence of inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on tomato plant growth and nematode reproduction under greenhouse conditions. Saudi J Biol Sci 20:57–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Aloni R, Aloni E, Langhans M (2006) Role of cytokinin and auxin in shaping root architecture: regulating vascular differentiation, lateral root initiation, root apical dominance and root gravitropism. Ann Bot 97:883–889PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Alvarez MADB, Gagne S, Antoun H (1995) Effect of compost on rhizosphere microflora of the tomato and on the incidence of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol:194–199Google Scholar
  16. Amara U, Khalid R, Hayat R (2015) Soil bacteria and phytohormones for sustainable crop production. In: Maheshwari DK (ed) Bacterial metabolites in sustainable agroecosystem. Springer International, Switzerland, pp 87–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Anandham R, Janahiraman V, Gandhi PI, Kwon SW, Chung KY, Han GH, Choi JH, Sa TM (2014) Early plant growth promotion of maize by various sulfur oxidizing bacteria that uses different thiosulfate oxidation pathway. Afr J Microbiol Res 8:19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Anith KN, Sreekumar A, Sreekumar J (2015) The growth of tomato seedlings inoculated with co-cultivated Piriformospora indica and Bacillus pumilus. Symbiosis 65:9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Atzorn R, Crozier A, Wheeler CT, Sandberg G (1988) Production of gibberellins and indole-3-acetic acid by Rhizobium phaseoli in relation to nodulation of Phaseolus vulgaris roots. Planta 175:532–538PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Azcorn R, Barea JM (1975) Synthesis of auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins by Azotobacter vinelandi and Azotobacter beijerinckii related to effects produced on tomato plants. Plant Soil 43:609–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Badri DV, Chaparro JM, Zhang R, Shen Q, Vivanco JM (2013) Application of natural blends of phytochemicals derived from the root exudates of Arabidopsis to the soil reveal that phenolic-related compounds predominantly modulate the soil microbiome. J Biol Chem 288:4502–4512PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bano N, Musarrat J (2003) Isolation and characterization of phorate degrading soil bacteria of environmental and agronomic significance. Lett Appl Microbiol 36:349–353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Barriuso J, Solano BR, Fray RG, Cámara M, Hartmann A, Gutiérrez Mañero FJ (2008) Transgenic tomato plants alter quorum sensing in plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Plant Biotechnol J 6:442–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bastián F, Cohen A, Piccoli P, Luna V, Bottini R, Baraldi R, Bottini R (1998) Production of indole-3-acetic acid and gibberellins A1 and A3 by Acetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum seropedicae in chemically-defined culture media. Plant Grow Reg 24:7–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bellishree K, Ganeshan G, Ramachandra YL, Rao AS, Chethana BS (2014) Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (pgpr) on germination, seedling growth and yield of tomato. Int J Rec Sci Res 5:1437–1443Google Scholar
  26. Beneduzi A, Ambrosini A, Passaglia LMP (2012) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): their potential as antagonists and biocontrol agents. Genet Mol Biol 35(4 Suppl):1044–1051PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Benner M, Linnemann AR, Jongen WMF et al (2007) An explorative study on the systematic development of tomato ketchup with potential health benefits using the chain information model. Trends Food Sci Tech 18:150–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bernardo AH, José RVJ, Reginaldo SR, Harllen SAS, Maria CB (2006) Induction of systemic resistance in tomato by the autochthonous phylloplane resident Bacillus cereus. Pesq Agropec Bras, Brasília 41:1247–1252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Beutner S, Bloedorn B, Frixel S et al (2001) Quantitative assessment of antioxidant properties of natural colorants and phytochemicals: carotenoids, flavonoids, phenols and indigoids. The role of β-carotene in antioxidant functions. J Sci Food Agric 81:559–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bhattacharyya PN, Jha DK (2012) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): emergence in agriculture. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 28:1327–1350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bhowmik D, Kumar KPS, Paswan S, Srivastava S (2012) Tomato—a natural medicine and its health benefits. J Pharmacog Phytochem 1:33Google Scholar
  32. Botelho GR, Mendonça-Hagler LC (2006) Fluorescent pseudomonads associated with the rhizosphere of crops-an overview. Braz J Microbiol 37:401–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bulgarelli D, Rott M, Schlaeppi K, Ver Loren van Themaat E, Ahmadinejad N, Assenza F, Rauf P, Huettel B, Reinhardt R, Schmelzer E, Peplies J, Gloeckner FO, Amann R, Eickhorst T, Schulze-Lefert P (2012) Revealing structure and assembly cues for Arabidopsis root-inhabiting bacterial microbiota. Nature 488:91–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Chandra RV, Prabhuji V, Roopa DA, Ravirajan S, Kishore HC (2007) Efficacy of lycopene in treatment of gingivitis: a randomized placebo controlled clinical trial. Oral Health Prev Dent 5:327–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Chaparro JM, Badri DV, Vivanco JM (2013) Rhizosphere microbiome assemblage is affected by plant development. ISME J 8:790–803PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Chookietwattana K, Maneewan K (2012) Selection of efficient salt-tolerant bacteria containing ACC deaminase for promotion of tomato growth under salinity stress. Soil Environ 31:30–36Google Scholar
  37. Chowdhury SP, Hartmann A, Gao X, Borriss R (2015) Biocontrol mechanism by root-associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42—a review. Front Microbiol 6:780PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dairo KP, Akintunde JK (2012) Evaluation of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria for the control of bacterial wilt disease of tomato. GJBB 1:253–256Google Scholar
  39. Dakora FD, Phillips DA (2002) Root exudates as mediators of mineral acquisition in low-nutrient environments. Plant Soil 245:35–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dashti NH, Montasser MS, Ali NYA, Cherian VM (2014) Influence of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on fruit yield, pomological characteristics and chemical contents in cucumber mosaic virus-infected tomato plants. Kuwait J Sci 41:205–220Google Scholar
  41. Dawwam GE, Elbeltagy Emara AHM, Abbas IH, Hassan MM (2013) Beneficial effect of plant growth promoting bacteria isolated from the roots of potato plant. Ann Agric Sci 58:195–201Google Scholar
  42. Dorais M, Ehret DL, Papadopoulos AP (2008) Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) health components: from the seed to the consumer. Phytochem Rev 7:231–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dursun A, Ekinci M, Dönmez MF (2010) Effects of foliar application of plant growth promoting bacterium on chemical contents, yield and growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Pak J Bot 42:3349–3356Google Scholar
  44. El-Tantawy ME, Mohamed MAN (2009) Effect of inoculation with phosphate solubilizing bacteria on the tomato rhizosphere colonization process, plant growth and yield under organic and inorganic fertilization. J Appl Sci Res 5:1117–1131Google Scholar
  45. Felici C, Vettori L, Giraldi E, Forino LMC, Toffanin A, Tagliasacchi AM, Nuti M (2008) Single and co-inoculation of Bacillus subtilis and Azospirillum brasilense on Lycopersicon esculentum: effect on plant growth and rhizosphere microbial community. Appl Soil Ecol 40:260–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Flores-Félix JD, Menéndez E, Rivera LP, Marcos-García M, Martínez-Hidalgo P, Mateos PF, Martínez-Molina E, Velázquez ME, García-Fraile P, Rivas R (2013) Use of Rhizobium leguminosarum as a potential biofertilizer for Lactuca sativa and Daucus carota crops. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 176:876–882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Frohlich K, Kaufmann K, Bitsch R, Bohm V (2006) Effects of ingestion of tomatoes, tomato juice and tomato puree on contents of lycopene isomers, tocopherols and ascorbic acid in human plasma as well as on lycopene isomer pattern. Br J Nutr 95:734–741PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gagne S, Dehbi L, Quéré DL, Fournier N (1993) Increase of greenhouse tomato fruit yields by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculated into the peat-based growing media. Soil Biol Biochem 25:269–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Garcia-Fraile P, Carro L, Robledo M (2012) Rhizobium promotes non-legumes growth and quality in several production steps: towards a biofertilization of edible raw vegetables healthy for humans. PLoS One 7(5):e38122. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038122 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. George B, Kaur C, Khurdiya DS, Kapoor HC (2004) Antioxidants in tomato (Lycopersium esculentum) as a function of genotype. Food Chem 84:45–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Glick BR (2012) Plant growth-promoting bacteria: mechanisms and applications. Scientifica. Article ID: 963401. doi: 10.6064/2012/963401
  52. Glick BR (2014) Bacteria with ACC deaminase can promote plant growth and help to feed the world. Microbiol Res 169:30–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Glick BR, Todorovic B, Czarny J, Cheng Z, Duan J et al (2007) Promotion of plant growth by bacterial ACC deaminase. Crit Rev Plant Sci 26:227–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gopalakrishnan S, Sathya A, Vijayabharathi R, Varshney RK, Gowda CLL, Krishnamurthy L (2015) Plant growth promoting rhizobia: challenges and opportunities. 3 Biotech 5:355–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Goswami D, Parmar S, Vaghela H, Dhandhukia P, Thakker J (2015) Describing Paenibacillus mucilaginosus strain N3 as an efficient plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Cogent Food Agric 1:1Google Scholar
  56. Govindasamy V, Senthilkumar M, Magheshwaran V, Kumar U, Bose P, Sharma V, Annapurna K (2011) Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp.: potential PGPR for sustainable agriculture. In: Maheshwari DK (ed) Plant growth and health promoting bacteria. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 333–364Google Scholar
  57. Gravel V, Antoun H, Tweddell RJ (2007) Growth stimulation and fruit yield improvement of greenhouse tomato plants by inoculation with Pseudomonas putida or Trichoderma atroviride: possible role of indole acetic acid (IAA). Soil Biol Biochem 39:1968–1977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gupta G, Parihar SS, Ahirwar NK, Snehi SK, Singh V (2015) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): current and future prospects for development of sustainable agriculture. J Microb Biochem Technol 7:2Google Scholar
  59. Gutierrez-Manero FJ, Ramos-Solano B, Probanza A, Mehouachi JR, Tadeo F, Talon M (2001) The plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus licheniformis produce high amounts of physiologically active gibberellins. Physiol Plantarum 111:206–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hammami I, Hsouna AB, Hamdi N, Gdoura R, Triki MA (2013) Isolation and characterization of rhizosphere bacteria for the biocontrol of the damping-off disease of tomatoes in Tunisia. C R Biol 336:557–564PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hassan W, David J, Bashir F (2014) ACC-deaminase and/or nitrogen-fixing rhizobacteria and growth response of tomato (Lycopersicon pimpinellfolium Mill.) J Plant Inter 9:869–882Google Scholar
  62. Hedden P, Phillips AL (2000) Gibberellin metabolism: new insights revealed by the genes. Trends Plant Sci 5:523–530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Heeb A, (2005) Organic or mineral fertilization. Effects on tomato plant growth and fruit quality. Doctoral Thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  64. Heulin T, Achouak W, Berge O, Normand P, Guinebretière MH (2002) Paenibacillus graminis sp. nov. and Paenibacillus odorifer sp. nov., isolated from plant roots, soil and food. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:607–616PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hiltner L (1904) About recent experiences and problems the field of soil bacteriology with special consideration of green manure and fallow. Arbeiten der Deutschen Landwirtschaftlichen Gesellschaft 98:59–78Google Scholar
  66. Hortencia GM, Olalde V, Violante P (2007) Alteration of tomato fruit quality by root inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): Bacillus subtilis BEB-13bs. Sci Hortic 113:103–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Indiragandhi P, Anandham R, Madhaiyan M, Sa TM (2008) Characterization of plant growth-promoting traits of bacteria isolated from larval guts of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Curr Microbiol 56:327–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Jha CK, Saraf M (2015) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): a review. E3 J Agric Res Dev 5:108–119Google Scholar
  69. Jha CK, Patel D, Rajendran N, Saraf M (2010) Combinatorial assessment on dominance and informative diversity of PGPR from rhizosphere of Jatropha curcas L. J Basic Microbiol 50:211–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Jha CK, Patel B, Saraf M (2012) Stimulation of the growth of Jatropha curcas by the plant growth promoting bacterium Enterobacter cancerogenus MSA2. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 28:891–899PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Jiang C, Sheng X, Qian M, Wang Q (2008) Isolation and characterization of a heavy metal resistant Burkholderia sp. from heavy metal-contaminated paddy field soil and its potential in promoting plant growth and heavy metal accumulation in metal-polluted soil. Chemosphere 72:157–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Jikare AM, Chavan MD (2013) Siderophore produced by Bacillus shackletonii GN-09 and its plant growth promoting activity. IJPBS 3:198–202Google Scholar
  73. Joo GJ, Kim YM, Kim JT (2005) Gibberellins-producing rhizobacteria increase endogenous gibberellins content and promote growth of red peppers. J Microbiol 43:510–515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Kalloo G (1991) Introduction. In: Kalloo G (ed) Monographs on theoretical and applied genetics 14. Genetic improvement of tomato. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 1–9Google Scholar
  75. Kamilova F, Kravchenko LV, Shaposhnikov AI, Azarova A, Makarova N, Lugtenberg B (2006) Organic acids, sugars, and L-tryptophane in exudates of vegetables growing on stone wool and their effects on activities of rhizosphere bacteria. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 19:250–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kasa P, Modugapalem H, Battini K (2015) Isolation, screening, and molecular characterization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolates of Azotobacter and Trichoderma and their beneficial activities. J Nat Sci Biol Med 6:360–363PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Khaliq S, Khalid A, Saba B, Mahmood S, Siddique MT, Aziz I (2013) Effect of ACC deaminase bacteria on tomato plants containing azo dye wastewater. Pak J Bot 45:529–534Google Scholar
  78. Khan AL, Waqas M, Kang S, Al-Harrasi A, Hussain J, Al-Rawahi A, Al-Khiziri S, Ullah I, Ali L, Jung H, Lee I (2014) Bacterial endophyte Sphingomonas sp. LK11 produces gibberellins and IAA and promotes tomato plant growth. J Microbiol. doi: 10.1007/s12275-014-4002-7 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Khan MS, Zaidi A, Ahemad M, Oves M, Wani PA (2010) Plant growth promotion by phosphate solubilizing fungi-current perspective. Arch Agron Soil Sci 56:73–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Khan MS, Zaidi A, Wani PA, Oves M (2009) Role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in the remediation of metal contaminated soils. Environ Chem Lett 7:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kloepper JW, Schroth MN (1978) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on radishes. In: Station de Pathologie (ed) Proceedings of the 4th international conference on plant pathogenic bacteria, Végétale et Phyto-Bactériologie, pp 879–882Google Scholar
  82. Kloepper JW, Schroth MN (1981) Relationship of in vitro antibiosis of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria to plant growth and the displacement of root microflora. Phytopathology 71:1020–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kloepper JW, Leong J, Teintze M, Schroth MN (1980) Enhanced plant growth by siderophores produced by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Nature 286:885–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kloepper JW, Zablotowick RM, Tipping EM, Lifshitz R (1991) Plant growth promotion mediated by bacterial rhizosphere colonizers. In: Keister DL, Cregan PB (eds) The rhizosphere and plant growth. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, pp 315–326Google Scholar
  85. Kumar A, Bagewadi A, Keluskar V, Singh M (2007) Efficacy of lycopene in the management of oral submucous fibrosis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 103:207–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lachisa L, Dabassa A (2015) Synergetic effect of rhizosphere bacteria isolates and composted manure on fusarium wilt disease of tomato plants. Res J Microbiol 11:20–27Google Scholar
  87. Lambrecht M, Okon Y, Broek AV, Vanderleyden J (2000) Indole-3-acetic acid: a reciprocal signaling molecule in bacteria plant interactions. Trends Microbiol 8:298–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lanteigne C, Gadkar VJ, Wallon T, Novinscak A, Filion M (2012) Production of DAPG and HCN by Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300 contributes to the biological control of bacterial canker of tomato. Phytopathology 102:967–973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Leclere V, Bechet M, Adam A, Guez JS, Wathelet B, Ongena M, Thonart P (2005) Mycosubtilin overproduction by Bacillus subtilis BBG100 enhances the organism’s antagonistic and biocontrol activities. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:4577–4584PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lee KH, Koh RH, Song HG (2008) Enhancement of growth and yield of tomato by Rhodopseudomonas sp. under green house conditions. J Microbiol 46:641–646PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Liu R, Dai M, Wu X, Li M, Liu X (2012) Suppression of the root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood] on tomato by dual inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Mycorrhiza 22:289–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Livny O, Kaplan I, Reifen R, Charcon SP, Madat Z, Schwartz B (2002) Lycopene inhibits proliferation and enhances gap junction communication of KB-1 human oral tumor cells. J Nutr 132:3754–3759PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Loganathan MR, Garg V, Saha VS, Rai AB (2014) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) induces resistance against Fusarium wilt and improves lycopene content and texture in tomato. Afr J Microbiol Res 8:1105–1111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Lugtenberg B, Chin-A-Woeng T, Bloemberg G (2002) Microbe–plant interactions: principles and mechanisms. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 81:373–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lugtenberg BJ, Kravchenko LV, Simons M (1999) Tomato seed and root exudate sugars: composition, utilization by Pseudomonas biocontrol strains and role in rhizosphere colonization. Environ Microbiol 1:439–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Lundberg DS, Lebeis SL, Paredes SH, Yourstone S, Gehring J, Malfatti S, Tremblay J, Engelbrektson A, Kunin V, del Rio TG, Edgar RC, Eickhorst T, Ley RE, Hugenholtz P, Tringe SG, Dangl JL (2012) Defining the core Arabidopsis thaliana root microbiome. Nature 488:86–90PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Lynch JM (1987) The rhizosphere. Wiley Interscience, Chichester, UKGoogle Scholar
  98. Majeed A, Abbasi MK, Hameed S, Imran A, Rahim N (2015) Isolation and characterization of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria from wheat rhizosphere and their effect on plant growth promotion. Front Microbiol 6:198PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Manzanera M, Narváez-Reinaldo JJ, García-Fontana C, Vílchez JI, González-López J (2015) Genome sequence of Arthrobacter koreensis 5J12A, a plant growth promoting and desiccation-tolerant strain. Genome Announc 3(3):e00648-15. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00648-15 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mariutto M, Duby F, Adam A, Bureau C, Fauconnier M, Ongena M, Thonart P, Dommes J (2011) The elicitation of a systemic resistance by Pseudomonas putida BTP1 in tomato involves the stimulation of two lipoxygenase isoforms. BMC Plant Biol 11:29PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Meena G, Borkar SG, Nisha ML (2015) Population dynamics of plant growth promoting microbes on root surface and rhizosphere of tomato crop and their beneficial effect as bioinoculants on tomato and chilli crop. Int J Adv Res 3:990–996Google Scholar
  102. Mehnaz S (2013) Secondary metabolites of Pseudomonas aurantiaca and their role in plant growth promotion. In: Arora NK (ed) Plant microbe symbiosis: fundamentals and advances. Springer, India, pp 373–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Murthy KN, Uzma F, Chitrashree SC (2014) Induction of systemic resistance in tomato against Ralstonia solanacearum by Pseudomonas fluorescens. Am J Plant Sci 5:1799–1811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Myresiotis CK, Karaoglanidis GS, Vryzas Z, Papadopoulou-Mourkidou E (2012) Evaluation of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria, acibenzolar-S-methyl and hymexazol for integrated control of Fusarium crown and root rot on tomato. Pest Manage Sci 68:404–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Neal AL, Ahmad S, Gordon-Weeks R, Ton J (2012) Benzoxazinoids in root exudates of maize attracts Pseudomonas putida to the rhizosphere. PLoS One 7(4):e35498. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035498 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Ngoma L, Esau B, Babalola OO (2013) Isolation and characterization of beneficial indigenous endophytic bacteria for plant growth promoting activity in Molelwane Farm Mafikeng, South Africa. Afr J Biotechnol 12:4105–4114Google Scholar
  107. Nzanza B, Marais D, Soundy P (2012) Yield and nutrient content of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) as influenced by Trichoderma harzianum and Glomus mosseae inoculation. Sci Hortic 144:55–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Odriozola-Serrano I, Soliva-Fortuny R, Hernandez-Jover T, Martin-Belloso O (2009) Carotenoid and phenolics profile of tomato juices processed by high intensity pulse electric fields compared with conventional thermal treatments. Food Chem 112:258–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Oldroyd GED (2007) Nodules and hormones. Science 315(5808):52–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Ordookhani K, Zare M (2011) Effect of Pseudomonas, Azotobacter and Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi on lycopene, antioxidant activity and total soluble solid in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum F1 Hybrid, Delba). Adv Environ Biol 5:1290–1294Google Scholar
  111. Ordookhani K, Khavazi K, Moezzi A, Rejali F (2010) Influence of PGPR and AMF on antioxidant activity, lycopene and potassium contents in tomato. Afr J Agric Res 5:1108–1116Google Scholar
  112. Pandey SK, Chandra KK (2013) Impact of integrated nutrient management on tomato yield under farmers field conditions. J Environ Biol 34:1047–1051PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Pandya ND, Desai PV (2014) Screening and characterization of GA3 producing Pseudomonas monteilii and its impact on plant growth promotion. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 3:110–115Google Scholar
  114. Patten CL, Glick BR (1996) Bacterial biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid. Can J Microbiol 42:207–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Peralta IE, Spooner DM (2007) History, origin and early cultivation of tomato (Solanaceae). In: Razdan MK, Mattoo AK (ed) Genetic improvement of solanaceous crops, Vol 2: Tomato, Science Publishers, New Hampshire, USA, p 1–24Google Scholar
  116. Porcel R, Zamarreño ÁM, García-Mina JM, Aroca R (2014) Involvement of plant endogenous ABA in Bacillus megaterium PGPR activity in tomato plants. BMC Plant Biol 14:36PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Prashar P, Kapoor N, Sachdeva S (2014) Plant growth promoting activities of rhizobacteria associated with tomato in semi-arid region. Adv Life Sci Health 1:1Google Scholar
  118. Puertas A, Gonzales LM (1999) Aislamiento de cepasnativas de Azotobacter chroococcum en la provincial Granmayevaluacion de suactividadestimuladora en plantulas de tomate. Cell Mol Life Sci 20:5–7Google Scholar
  119. Radzki W, Manero FJG, Algar E (2013) Bacterial siderophores efficiently provide iron to iron-starved tomato plants in hydroponics culture. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 104:321–330PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Sayyed RZ, Chincholkar SB, Reddy MS, Gangurde NS, Patel PR (2013) Siderophore producing PGPR for crop nutrition and phytopathogen suppression. In: Maheshwari DK (ed) Bacteria in agrobiology: disease management. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  121. Schuhegger R, Ihring A, Gantner S, Knappe GBC, Vogg G, Hutzler P, Schmid M, Eberl FVBL, Hartmann A, Langebartels C (2006) Induction of systemic resistance in tomato by N-acyl-L homoserine lactone-producing rhizosphere bacteria. Plant Cell Environ 29:909–918PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Selvakumar G, Mohan M, Kundu S, Gupta AD, Joshi P, Nazim S, Gupta HS (2008) Cold tolerance and plant growth promotion potential of Serratia marcescens strain SRM (MTCC 8708) isolated from flowers of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo). Lett Appl Microbiol 46:171–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Selvakumar GR, Reetha R, Thamizhiniyan P (2013) The PGPR as elicitors of plant defence mechanisms and growth stimulants on tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) Bot Res Int 6:47–55Google Scholar
  124. Seneviratne M, Gunaratne S, Bandara T, Weerasundara L, Rajakaruna N, Seneviratne G, Vithanage M (2016) Plant growth promotion by Bradyrhizobium japonicum under heavy metal stress. South Afr J Bot 105:19–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Sharma SB, Sayyed RZ, Trivedi MH, Gobi TA (2013) Phosphate solubilizing microbes: sustainable approach for managing phosphorus deficiency in agricultural soils. SpringerPlus 2:587PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Shen M, Jun Kang Y, Li Wang H, Sheng Zhang X, Xin Zhao Q (2012) Effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) on plant growth, yield, and quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) under simulated seawater irrigation. J Gen Appl Microbiol 58:253–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Shi J, Le Maguer M (2000) Lycopene in tomatoes: chemical and physical properties affected by food processing. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 40:1–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Shishido M, Chanway CP (1998) Storage effects on indigenous soil microbial communities and PGPR efficacy. Soil Biol Biochem 30:939–947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Siddikee MA, Chauhan PS, Anandham R, Han GH, Sa T (2010) Isolation, characterization, and use for plant growth promotion under salt stress, of ACC deaminase producing halo tolerant bacteria derived from coastal soil. J Microbiol Biotechnol 20:1577–1584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Siddiqui ZA, Futai K (2009) Biocontrol of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato using antagonistic fungi, plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria and cattle manure. Pest Manage Sci 65:943–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Simons M, Permentier HP, de Weger LA, Wijffelman CA, Lugtenberg BJJ (1997) Amino acid sysnthesis is necessary for tomato root colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain WCS365. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 10:102–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Singh SP, Singh HB, Singh DK (2013) Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas sp. mediated management of Sclerotium rolfsii rot in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Bioscan 8:801–804Google Scholar
  133. Singh D, Yadav DK, Chaudhary G, Rana VS, Sharma RK (2016) Potential of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens for biocontrol of bacterial wilt of tomato incited by Ralstonia solanacearum. J Plant Pathol Microbiol 7:327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Sivasakthi S, Kanchana D, Usharani G, Saranraj P (2013) Production of plant growth promoting substance by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis isolates from paddy rhizosphere soil of Cuddalore district Tamil Nadu, India. Int J Microbiol Res 4:227–233Google Scholar
  135. Sokolova MG, Akimova GP, Vaishlia OB (2011) Effect of phytohormones synthesized by rhizosphere bacteria on plants. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol 47:302–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Son J, Sumayo M, Hwang Y, Kim B, Ghim S (2014) Screening of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria as elicitor of systemic resistance against gray leaf spot disease in pepper. Appl Soil Ecol 73:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Srivastava LM (2002) Plant growth and development: hormones and environment. Academic Press, San Diego, CAGoogle Scholar
  138. Súarez MH, Rodriguez EMR, Romero CD (2008) Chemical composition of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) from Tenerife, the Canary Islands. Food Chem 106:1046–1056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Sulochana MB, Jayachandra SY, Kumar SA, Parameshwar AB, Reddy KM, Dayanand A (2014) Siderophore as a potential plant growth-promoting agent produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa JAS-25. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 174:297–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Talboys PJ, Owen DW, Healey JR, Withers PJA, Jones DL (2014) Auxin secretion by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 both stimulates root exudation and limits phosphorus uptake in Triticum aestivum. BMC Plant Biol 14:51PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Tallapragada P, Dikshit R, Seshagir S (2015) Isolation and optimization of IAA producing Burkholderia seminalis and its effect on seedlings of tomato. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol 37:553–559Google Scholar
  142. Teale WD, Paponov IA, Palme K (2006) Auxin in action: signaling, transport and the control of plant growth and development. Mol Cell Biol 7:847–859Google Scholar
  143. Thamer S, Schädler M, Bonte D (2011) Dual benefit from a belowground symbiosis: nitrogen fixing rhizobia promote growth and defense against a specialist herbivore in a cyanogenic plant. Plant Soil 341:209–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Thompson KA, Marshall MR, Sims CA, Wei CI, Sargent SA, Scott JW (2000) Cultivar, maturity and heat treatment on lycopene content in tomatoes. J Food Sci 65:791–795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Tran H, Ficke A, Asiimwe T, Höfte M, Raaijmakers JM (2007) Role of the cyclic lipopeptide massetolide A in biological control of Phytophthora infestans and in colonization of tomato plants by Pseudomonas fluorescens. New Phytol. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2007.02138.x PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Turan M, Ekinci M, Yildirim E, Günes A, Karagöz K, Kotan R, Dursun A (2014) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria improved growth, nutrient, and hormone content of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) seedlings. Turk J Agric For 38:327–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Turner TR, Ramakrishnan K, Walshaw J, Heavens D, Alston M, Swarbreck D, Osbourn A, Grant A, Poole PS (2013) Comparative meta transcriptomics reveals kingdom level changes in the rhizosphere microbiome of plants. ISME J 7:2248–2258PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Vaikuntapu PR, Dutta S, Samudrala RB, Rao VRVN, Kalam S, Podile AR (2014) Preferential promotion of Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomato) growth by plant growth promoting bacteria associated with tomato. Indian J Microbiol 54:403–412PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Vessey JK (2003) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biofertilizers. Plant Soil 255:571–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Walker TS, Bais HP, Grotewold E, Vivanco JM (2003) Root exudation and rhizosphere biology. Plant Physiol 132:44–51PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Werner T, Motyka V, Strnad M, Schmulling T (2001) Regulation of plant growth by cytokinin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:10487–11049PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Yan J, Smith MD, Glick BR, Liang Y (2014) Effects of ACC deaminase containing rhizobacteria on plant growth and expression of Toc GTPases in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) under salt stress. Botany 92:775–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Agricultural MicrobiologyAligarh Muslim UniversityAligarhIndia

Personalised recommendations