Community-Based Sanctions: Probation and Post-release Supervision

  • Peter C. Kratcoski
  • Susan Crittenden
  • Susan Worstall


This chapter defines probation and traces the origins of probation from its early development to the present time. The organization and operations of municipal, state, and federal probation in the United States are explained. The role of the probation officer and an explanation of the ways the role of the probation officer has changed are examined. The post-release process (parole) is described, and the use of evidence-based assessment instruments in probation and parole is considered.


Probation Pretrial supervision Municipal court probation US legal system State courts Federal courts Deferred prosecution Diversion Presentence investigation Risk-needs assessment General conditions of probation Special conditions of probation Probation officer Community supervision officer Community residential centers Post-incarceration supervision Parole Alcohol and drug abuse residential centers Deferred adjudication Revocation of community supervision State jail offenders Sentencing guidelines Split sentence 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter C. Kratcoski
    • 1
  • Susan Crittenden
    • 2
  • Susan Worstall
    • 3
  1. 1.Kent State UniversityKentUSA
  2. 2.Dallas County Community Supervision and Corrections DepartmentDallasUSA
  3. 3.U.S. Pretrial and Probation Department (Retired)AkronUSA

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