Minority Inclusion and Welfare

  • A. S. BhallaEmail author
  • Dan Luo


This Chapter addresses the issues of social and political exclusion of minorities by studying their participation in politics and legislative bodies. India being a democracy with popularly-elected national parliament and state assemblies, representation of Muslim minority in these bodies is used as an indicator of political participation. On the other hand, in China’s single-party government, minority representation in the National People’s Congress and People’s Political Consultative Conferences is studied. The share of minority deputies in both these bodies is higher than their share in the population. On the other hand, in India the Muslim minority is grossly under-represented in national parliament. Also studied in the chapter is minority participation in public and private sectors and in local elected bodies as well as the impact of inclusion on minority welfare.


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© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CommugnySwitzerland
  2. 2.University of ReadingReadingUK

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