Advertisement

The Persistence of Ethnic Communities

Chapter
  • 159 Downloads

Abstract

This chapter presents a comprehensive review of the literature on ethnic diversity. It points out that what is clearly a major limitation if not an under-representation in the existing literature is that the emphasis is not directed to post-colonial societies and in particular small island states. In examining societies such as Fiji, Guyana, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago, it is evident that one has to rely on the plural society model to provide explanations for the accommodation of the ethnic communities within these countries. In utilizing the plural society model, what emerges is an essential difference between these post-colonial, transplanted societies and societies which are larger and have been fissured by ethnic diffractions or what may be described as ethnic implosions within these communities.

Keywords

Anthony Smith Barth Beer Class analysis Coakley Coppel Cultural ecology Ernest Gellner Ethnic implosions Ethnic solidarity Ethnicity Fissparous tendencies Group solidarity Guibernau and Rex Heterogeneous societies Homogenous societies Hutchinson and Smith Jenkins John Furnivall Lipset and Rokkan M.G Smith Marx Multicultural societies Neilsen Reactive-ethnicity model Rex Ringer and Lawless Safran Sanders Schermerhorn Self-identification Stratification Structural – functionalists Structural-discrimination Talcott Parsons Unifying Weber Westminster Whitehall 

References

  1. Barth, Fredrik. 1998. Ethnic Group and Boundaries: The Social Organization of Culture Difference. Illinois: Waveland Press.Google Scholar
  2. Beer, Willaim R. 1980. The Unexpected Rebellion: Ethnic Activism in Contemporary France. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bissessar, Ann Marie, and John Gaffar La Guerre. 2013. Trinidad and Tobago and Guyana. Race and Politics in Two Plural Societies. Lanham, Boulder, New York: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  4. Burton, John W. 1987. Resolving Deep- Rooted Conflict. A Handbook. Lantham: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  5. Carmack, Robert M. 1988. Harvest of Violence. The Maya Indians and the Guatemalan Crisis. Norman and London: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
  6. Coakley, John. 2003. The Territorial Management of Ethnic Conflict. 2nd Edition. Southgate, London: Frank Cass.Google Scholar
  7. Coppel, Charles, A. 1997. “Revisiting Furnivall’s ‘Plural Society’: Colonial Java as a Mestizo Society?.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 20 (3) July: 562–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Durkheim, E. 1933. The Division of Labour in Society. Illinois: Free Press, Glencoe.Google Scholar
  9. Furnivall, J.S. 1939. Netherlands India: A Study of Plural Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Furnivall, J.S. 1945. “Some Problems of Tropical Economy.” In Fabian Colonial Essays, ed. Rita Hinden, 161–184 (167–8). London: George Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  11. Gellner, Ernest. 1983. Nations and Nationalism. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  12. Guibernau, Montserrat, and John Rex. 1999. The Ethnicity Reader. Nationalism, Multiculturalism and Migration. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press in association with Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
  13. Hechter, Michael. 1974. “The Political Economy of Ethnic Change.” American Journal of Sociology 79: 1151–1178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hutchinson, John, and Anthony D. Smith. 1996. Ethnicity. Great Clarendon Street, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Jenkins, R. 1996. “‘US’ and ‘ Them’: Ethnicity, Racism and Ideology.” In The Racism Problematic: Contemporary Sociological debates on Race and Ethnicity, ed. R. Barot. Lewinston: The Edwin Mellen Press.Google Scholar
  16. Lipset, Seymour H., and Stein Rokkan. 1967. Party Systems and Voter Alignment. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  17. Marx, Karl. 1964. Precapitalist Economic Formations. Translated by Jack Cohen Edited by. Eric J. Hobsbawm. New York: International Publishers.Google Scholar
  18. Narroll, R. 1964. “On Ethnic Classification.” Current Anthropology 5: 283–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nazroo, James Y., and Saffron Karlsen. 2003. “Patterns of Identity among Ethnic Minority People: Diversity and Commonality.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 26 (5) September: 902–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nielsen, Francois. 1985. “Towards a Theory of Ethnic Solidarity in Modern Societies.” American Sociological Review 50: 133–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Parsons, Talcott. 1945. “The Problem of Controlled Institutional Change: An Essay in Applied Social Science.” Psychiatry 8: 79–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rex, John. 1997. “The Problematic of Multinational and Multicultural Societies.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 20 (3): 455–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Safran, William. 2010. “Multiculturalism, Ethnicity, and the Nation-state Ideology, Identity, and Policy.” In Nationalism and Democracy Dichotomies, Complementarities, Oppositions, ed. André Lecours and Luis Moreno, 16–38. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  24. Sanders, Jimy M. 2002. “Ethnic Boundaries and Identity in Plural Societies.” Annual Review of Sociology 28: 327–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Schermerhorn, Richard Alonzo. 1978. Comparative Ethnic Relations: A Framework for Theory and Research. Beverly Hills, California: Phoenix books Publisher, University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  26. Smith, Anthony. 1986. The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  27. Smith, M.G. 1960. “Social and Cultural Pluralism.” In Social and Cultural Pluralism in the Caribbean, eds. V. Rubin, 763–779. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  28. Smith, M.G. 1965. The Plural Society in the British West Indies. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  29. Stavenhagen, Rodolfo. 1996. Ethnic Conflicts and the Nation- State. Hampshire and London: Macmillan Press Ltd.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Weber, Max. 1922 (1968). Economy and Society. Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  31. Younger, Paul. 2010. New Homelands. Madison, New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Social SciencesUniversity of the West IndiesSt. AugustineTrinidad and Tobago

Personalised recommendations