Considerations Based on Behavioral Psychology and Cognitive Science

  • Werner LeodolterEmail author


Subconscious processes, which are based on experience and which can be trained, control our behavior and follow an “internal reasoning”. They are shaped—among other things—by linguistic constructs. These subconscious processes form the “fast and intuitive thinking”. The benefits of this efficiency are associated with hazards such as prejudices, bias etc. Intuition is an essential resource of our cognitive system and can be influenced. The subconscious mind acts as an associative machine which works on the basis of pattern recognition. So we form our reality in a three-step process consisting of suppression, distortion and generalization. Associations and analogies are essential characteristics of intelligence. These aspects from behavioral psychology and cognitive science at the personal level can be used to support good decision-making and—in the context of the respective organization—they also can be used in the light of the metaphor of shaping “the subconscious mind of organizations” in order to cope with change, uncertainties and disruption.


Intelligence Intuition Motivation Perception Cognition Pattern recognition Decision making 


  1. Bracken BA (ed) (1996) Handbook of self-concept: developmental, social, and clinical considerations. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Brown R (2013) Human, Wherever We Go, Huffington Post, 12.03.2013,
  3. Clark A, Chalmers DJ (1998) The extended mind. Analysis 58: 7–19; In: A. Clark (2008) Supersizing the mind: embodiment, action, and cognitive extension. Oxford University Press, Oxford and New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Damasio A (2012) Self comes to mind: constructing the conscious brain. Vintage Books EditionGoogle Scholar
  5. Dijsterhuis A (2006) On Making the right choice: the Deliberation-without-Attention Effect. Science 311Google Scholar
  6. Gigerenzer G (2007) Bauchentscheidungen. Die Intelligenz des Unbewussten und die Macht der Intuition. Bertelsmann, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  7. Hofstadter D, Sander E, Held S (2014) Die Analogie: Das Herz des Denkens, 1. Auflage, Tropen-Verlag 2014 Verlag C.H. Beck im Internet ISBN 978-3-608-94619-2Google Scholar
  8. Fan S (2016) How to build a mind? This learning theory may hold the answer. Singularity University BlogGoogle Scholar
  9. Jung CG (1995) Definitionen. In: Werke G (ed) Walter-Verlag, Düsseldorf 1995, Paperback, Sonderausgabe, Band 6, Psychologische Typen. ISBN 3-530-40081-5, S. 474 f., § 754–757Google Scholar
  10. Kahneman D (2011) Thinking fast and slow, Farrar, Straus and GirouxGoogle Scholar
  11. Kindermann S, von Weizsäcker RK (2010) Der Königsplan – Strategien für ihren Erfolg. Rowohlt VerlagGoogle Scholar
  12. Kumaran et al. (2016) What learning systems do intelligent agents need? Complementary learning systems theory updated” in trends in cognitive sciences Vol. 20, Issue 7, pp 512–534Google Scholar
  13. McClelland JL, McNaughton BL, O’Reilly RC (1995) Why there are complementary learning systems in the hippocampus and neocortex: insights from the successes and failures of connectionist models of learning and memory. Psychol Review 102(3):419–457 (Review)Google Scholar
  14. Minsky M (1988) The society of mind. Simon and Schuster, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Nowotny E (2015) The Cunning of uncertainty. Wiley, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Spiegel Online, Intuition: Die Macht des Unbewussten, 28 Apr 2007.
  17. Sprenger RK (2013) An der Freiheit des anderen kommt keiner vorbei. Campus Verlag Frankfurt, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Suhler C, Churchland P (2009) Control: conscious and otherwise. Trends in cognitive sciences 13:341–347.Google Scholar
  19. Turing AM (1950) Computing machinery and intelligence. Mind 59(236):433–460.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center of Entrepreneurship and Applied Business StudiesUniversity of GrazGrazAustria

Personalised recommendations