Advertisement

Debris Flow Hazard Assessment (Cave del Predil—NE Italy)

  • Chiara CalligarisEmail author
  • Glenda Nicola
  • Giacomo Casagrande
  • Luca Zini
  • Franco Cucchi
Conference paper

Abstract

Debris flows are one of the most frequent mass movement processes which develop on the mountain river network. With high flow velocity, long run-out, and high impacts, they are one of the most hazardous types of landslide. The material involved is heterometric debris with an extremely heterogeneous grain size distribution. The present research is focused on the interaction between the potential debris flow deposits from Rio Conzen and Canalone Andrea rivers with one of the four settling slag basins created during mining operations in the Cave del Predil mine (Tarvisio, Friuli Venezia Giulia, NE Italy). The mine is historical, the first written record of its existence dates back to 800BC. It remained active for a long period, and was the cause of dispute between the Italians and Austrians during WWI when the Austrians used a tunnel to transport troops and war material. After 1991 when the mine was closed, some levels were partially flooded in order to grant stability to the mine. The latter was later converted into a touristic area that along with the whole Val Canale valley was hit by an extremely intense alluvial event in August 2003 when more than 100 debris flows occurred. The valley is orthogonal to Val Canale where more intense damages occurred, but the possibility of the occurrence of new events (return period of 300y) is still high. The aim of this study was to create a possible scenario of the event, using FLO-2D software. The scenario obtained allow to study the interactions between debris flow deposits and the slag basins, and provide an understanding of the possibility of a river interruption. Scenarios can be considered extremely useful data to assist in informed future territorial planning of the area providing a good indication for hazard definition.

Keywords

Debris flow FLO-2D Modelling Hazard Territorial planning Italy 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The Authors are grateful to the technicians of the Hydraulic Service of the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region who provided the raw rainfall data. The Authors would also like to thank Karolyn Close who proof-read the text.

References

  1. Arattano M, Conte R, Franzi L, Giordan D, Lazzari A, Luino F (2010) Risk management on an alluvial fan: a case study of the 2008 debris-flow event at Villar Pellice (Piedmont, N-W Italy). Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 10:999–1008. doi: 10.5194/nhess-10-999-2010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bacchini M, Zannoni A (2003) Relations between rainfall and triggering of debri-flow: case study of Cancia (Dolomites, Northeastern Italy). Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 3:71–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bertolo P, Wieczorek GF (2005) Calibration of numerical models for small debris flows in Yosemite Valley, California, USA. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 5:993–1001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boccali C, Calligaris C, Zini L, Cucchi F, Lapasin R (2014) Comparison of scenarios after ten years: the influence of input parameters in Val Canale valley (Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy). In: Lollino G et al (eds) Engineering geology for society and territory, vol 2, pp 525–529Google Scholar
  5. Boniello MA, Calligaris C, Lapasin R, Zini L (2010) Rheological investigation and simulation of a debris-flow event in the Fella watershed. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 10:989–997. doi: 10.5194/nhess-10-989-2010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Borga M, Boscolo P, Zanon F, Sangati M (2007) Hydrometeorological analysis of the 29 August flash flood in the eastern Italian Alps. Am Meteorol Soc :1049–1067. doi: 10.1175/JHM593.1
  7. Brigo L, Omenetto P (1976) Le mineralizzazioni piombo-zincifere della zona di Raibl. Nuovi aspetti giacimentologici. Rassegna “L’industria mineraria”, febbraio 1976, pp 49–56Google Scholar
  8. Calligaris C, Zini L (2012) Debris flow phenomena: a short overview. In: Dar IA (eds) Earth sciences. TECH (Croatia), pp 71–90. ISBN: 978-953-307-672-0Google Scholar
  9. Calligaris C, Boniello MA, Zini L (2008) Debris flow modelling in Julian Alps using FLO-2D. In: De Wrachien D, Brebbia CA, Lenzi MA (eds) Monitoring, simulation, prevention and remediation of dense and debris flow II. WIT Press, UK, pp 81–88. ISBN: 9781845641184Google Scholar
  10. Calligaris C, Zini L, Cucchi F (2012) Debris follow rainfall thresholds in Val Canale Valley: first steps into their redefinition. In Monitoring, simulation, prevention and remediation of dense and debris flows IV, vol 73, pp 49–57. doi: 10.2495/DEB120051
  11. Carulli GB (2006) Note illustrative della Carta Geologica del Friuli Venezia Giulia Scala 1:150.000, S.E.L.C.A. FirenzeGoogle Scholar
  12. Cazzaniga C, Sciesa E, Thuring M, Zonta MF (2005) CatchRisk. Mitigation of hydro-geological risk in alpine catchments. Final report. Program Interreg IIIBAlpine space. 189 pGoogle Scholar
  13. Chuang MH, Chang TJ, Lin ML, Hsu MH (2000) An analysis of debris-flow transport in tributaries of Chen-Yo-Lan Creek, Taiwan. In: Second international conference on debris-flow hazards mitigation: mechanics, prediction, and assessment, ASCE, Taipei, Taiwan, pp 515–519Google Scholar
  14. D’Agostino V, Tecca PR (2006) Some considerations on the application of the FLO-2D model for debris flow hazard assessment. In: Proceedings of the 1st international conference on monitoring, simulation, prevention and remediation of dense and debris flows, Rhodes, Greece. WIT Press, Southampton, pp 159–170Google Scholar
  15. Fleming MJ (2000) Technical reference manual, hydrologic modeling system HEC-HMS, HQ US Army Corps of Engineers, pp 1–148Google Scholar
  16. Fleming MJ (2001) User’s manual, hydrologic modeling system HEC-HMS Version 3.5, HQ US Army Corps of Engineers, pp 1–318Google Scholar
  17. Gumbel EJ (2004) Stochastics of extremes. Dover Pubblications Inc., MineolaGoogle Scholar
  18. Hübl J, Steinwendtner H (2001) Two-dimensional simulation of two viscous debris flows in Austria. Phys Chem Earth Part C 26(9):639–644. doi: 10.1016/S1464-1917(01)00061-7 Google Scholar
  19. Hungr O, Evans SG, Bovis MJ, Hutchinson JN (2001) A review of the classification of landslides of the flow type. Environ Eng Geosci 8(3):221–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hussin HY, Ciurean R, Frigerio S, Marcato G, Calligaris C, Reichenbach P, Van Westen CJ, Glade T (2014) Assessing the effect of mitigation measures on landslide hazard using 2D numerical runout modelling. Landslide Sci Safer Geoenviron 2:679–684. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-05050-8_105 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jakob M (2005) Debris flow hazard analysis (Chapter 17). Debris-flow hazards and related phenomena. In: Jakob, M. Hungr, O (eds) Praxis Sperling, Berlin, pp 411–443Google Scholar
  22. Nicola G (2010) Colate detritiche a Cave del Predil. MS thesis, DISGAM University of Trieste, Trieste, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  23. O’Brien JS, Julien PY (2000) Flo-2D User’s Manual, Version 2000.01; Flo-Engineering: Nutrioso, AZ, USA, 2000, p 170Google Scholar
  24. O’Brien JS, Julien PY, Fullerton WT (1993) Two-dimensional water flood and mudflow simulation. J Hydraul Eng 119(2):244–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pohar C (2000) Le mineralizzazioni piombo-zincifere della Dolomia Ladino-Carnica. In: Carulli GB (ed) Proceedings of the 80th summer symposium, 6–8 Settembre 2000. Guida alle Escursioni, Università degli Studi di trieste, pp 101–102Google Scholar
  26. Rickenmann D, Laigle D, Mc Ardel BW, Hübl J (2006) Comparison of 2D debris-flow simulation models with field events. Comput Geosci 10:241. doi: 10.1007/s10596-005-9021-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tecca PR, Armento C, Genevois R (2006) Debris flow hazard and mitigation works in fiames slope (Dolomites, Italy). WIT Trans Ecol Environ 90:15–25. doi: 10.2495/DEB060021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tecca PR, Genevois R, Deganutti AM, Armento C (2007) Numerical modelling of two debris flows in the Dolomites (North-Eastern Italian Alps). In: 4th international conference debris flow hazards mitigation: mechanics, prediction, and assessment, Chengdu, China. Millpress, RotterdamGoogle Scholar
  29. Tropeano D, Turconi L, Sanna S (2004) Debris flow trigger by the 29 August 2003 cloudbust in Val Canale, eastern Italian Alps. In: Proceedings of the international symposium INTERPRAEVENT 2004, Riva del Garda, Italy, pp 121–132Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chiara Calligaris
    • 1
    Email author
  • Glenda Nicola
    • 1
  • Giacomo Casagrande
    • 2
  • Luca Zini
    • 1
  • Franco Cucchi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mathematics and GeosciencesUniversity of TriesteTriesteItaly
  2. 2.Regione FVG, Direzione Ambiente ed EnergiaTriesteItaly

Personalised recommendations