Advertisement

Seismic-Induced Landslides: Lessons Learned from Recent Earthquakes in Spain

  • José DelgadoEmail author
  • Martín J. Rodríguez-Peces
  • Francisco J. García-Tortosa
  • Jesús Garrido
  • Iván Martín
  • Pedro Alfaro
Conference paper

Abstract

On February 23, 2015, an earthquake of magnitude Mw 4.7 (Imax = V, scale EMS) struck the center of the Spain, triggering dozens of instabilities in taluses and natural slopes of an area characterized by low relief. These instabilities were characterized by: (1) very small size, most of them with volumes lower than 1 m3, and (2) to occur in rock masses affected by multiple discontinuities, which pre-defined blocks that fell down during the shaking. The inventory of instabilities of this earthquake has shown that most of the instabilities occurred on the slopes of the road network, although the larger instabilities were observed in natural slopes. The comparative analysis of this inventory with those made for other recent earthquakes occurred in the SE of Spain (1999, 2002, 2005 and 2011), all of them of similar magnitude Mw (between 4.7 and 5.1), allow to recognize that the vast majority of instabilities induced by these earthquakes were rock/soil falls, being other typologies of landslides very rare. In all cases, the size of instabilities triggered were small, usually with volumes of 1 m3 or less, reaching the larger volumes up to 500–1000 m3. Data available from these events point out that large landslides, as known in relation with historical earthquakes in Spain, cannot be induced by moderate to low magnitude earthquakes. Besides, slope morphology seems to control the location of induced instabilities. Thus, when the terrain is steep, as in the area affected by the earthquake in Lorca (2011, Mw 5.1), most of instabilities occur in natural slopes and affect the upper part of slopes. As the relief is less rugged, natural slopes instabilities are progressively less frequent until the extreme case of the 2015 event, when instabilities were located mostly on slopes of the road network.

Keywords

Landslide Earthquake Moderate magnitude Falls Epicentral distance Relief characteristics 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work has been founded by the EU (FEDER) and the Secretaría de Estado de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación of Spanish Government (project CGL2015-65602-R).

References

  1. Alfaro P, Delgado J, García-Tortosa FJ, Lenti L, López JA, López-Casado C, Martino S (2012) Widespread landslides induced by the Mw 5.1 earthquake of 11 May 2011 in Lorca, SE Spain. Eng Geol 137–138:40–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bird JF, Bommer J (2004) Earthquake losses due to ground failure. Eng Geol 75:147–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Delgado J, Peláez JA, Tomás R, García-Tortosa F, Alfaro P, López Casado C (2011a) Seismically-induced landslides in the Betic Cordillera (S Spain). Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 31:1203–1211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Delgado J, Garrido J, López Casado C, Martino S, Peláez JA (2011b) On the far field occurrence of seismically induced landslides. Eng Geol 123:204–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Delgado J, García-Tortosa FJ, Garrido J, Loffredo A, López-Casado C, Martin-Rojas I, Rodríguez-Peces MJ (2015) Seismically induced landslides by a low magnitude earthquake: the Ossa de Montiel event (Central Spain). Eng Geol 196:280–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. IGN (2016) Catálago de terremotos. https://www.ign.es/ign/layoutIn/sismoFormularioCatalogo.do. Last accessed 30 Aug 2016
  7. Jibson RW, Harp EL (2012) Extraordinary distance limits of landslides triggered by the 2011 mineral, virginia, earthquake. Bull Seismol Soc Am 102:2368–2377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Keefer DK (1984) Landslides caused by earthquakes. Bull Geol Soc Am 95:406–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Keefer DK, Wilson RC (1989) Predicting earthquake-induced landslides, with emphasis on arid and semi-arid environments. In: Sadler PM, Morton DM (eds) Landslides in a semiarid environment. Geological Society of Southern California Publications, Riverside (CA), pp 118–149Google Scholar
  10. Marano KD, Wald DJ, Allen TI (2009) Global earthquake casualties due to secondary effects: a quantitative analysis for improving rapid loss analyses. Nat Hazards 52:319–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Martínez Solares JM, Cabañas L, Benito B, Ricas A, Gaspar JM, Ruíz S, Rodríguez O (2013) Actualización de mapas de peligrosidad sísmica de España 2012. Gobierno de España, Ministerio de Fomento, Madrid, p 267Google Scholar
  12. Rodríguez CE, Bommer JJ, Chandler RJ (1999) Earthquake-induced landslides: 1980–1997. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 18:325–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Rodríguez-Peces MJ, Pérez-García JL, García-Mayordomo J, Azañón JM, Insua-Arévalo JM, Delgado J (2011) Applicability of Newmark method at regional, sub-regional and site scales: seismically induced Bullas and La Paca rock-slide cases (Murcia, SE Spain). Nat Hazards 59:1109–1124CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • José Delgado
    • 1
    Email author
  • Martín J. Rodríguez-Peces
    • 2
  • Francisco J. García-Tortosa
    • 3
  • Jesús Garrido
    • 4
  • Iván Martín
    • 1
  • Pedro Alfaro
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Earth SciencesUniversity of AlicanteAlicanteSpain
  2. 2.Department of GeodynamicsUniversity Complutense of MadridMadridSpain
  3. 3.Department of GeologyUniversity of JaénJaénSpain
  4. 4.Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain

Personalised recommendations