Data Hiding in H.264/AVC Video Files Using the Coded Block Pattern
This paper presents a novel data hiding method for H.264 which employs the coded block pattern (CBP) as the data carrier. The CBP is defined in the H.264/AVC standard, and indicates which luma and chroma blocks in a macroblock contain non-zero transform coefficients. To the best of our knowledge, little research has been conducted on exploiting the CBP for information hiding. In the proposed method, the four least significant bits of each CBP are mapped to a single bit to form the embedding channel. In addition, an embedding distortion function is specifically designed to evaluate the impacts of CBP manipulation on visual quality and compression efficiency. Combined with the suitably defined distortion function, the syndrome-trellis codes are employed to minimize the overall embedding impact. The experimental results show that only a slight reduction in visual quality would be caused, even when large payload is embedded. In addition, the compression efficiency could be maintained with insignificant fluctuation in bitrates.
KeywordsData hiding Coded block pattern H.264/AVC Compressed video
This work was supported by the NSFC under 61303259 and U1536105, Strategic Priority Research Program of CAS under XDA06030600, National Key Technology R&D Program under 2014BAH41B01, and Key Project of Institute of Information Engineering, CAS, under Y5Z0131201.
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