Advertisement

Watermarking with Fixed Decoder for Aesthetic 2D Barcode

  • Minoru KuribayashiEmail author
  • Ee-Chien Chang
  • Nobuo Funabiki
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10082)

Abstract

An aesthetic 2D-barcode, e.g. QR code, carries a given message in the payload and yet its visual appearance resembles another given logo image. The requirement of embedding a message in a “cover” image is similar to digital watermarking but with a crucial difference that, for the aesthetic 2D-barcode, the decoder is predetermined and fixed. Hence the designs and performances of the aesthetic 2D-barcode heavily rely on the predetermined decoder. In this paper, we focus on the underlying systematic encoding function in QR code. We first formulate a framework that optimizes the visual appearance of the codeword and yet meets the coding requirement. Since finding such an optimal codeword is computationally expensive, we next propose a heuristic to search for a feasible solution, and incorporate image processing operations to enhance the visual appearance. Although our method is designed for QR code, our approach can be applied to other 2D-barcodes that employ similar coding mechanisms of error correction code.

Keywords

Visual Quality Watermark Image Visual Appearance Information Symbol Visual Distance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was partially supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP16K00185.

References

  1. 1.
    Chu, H.K., Chang, C.S., Lee, R.R., Mitra, N.J.: Halftone QR codes. ACM Trans. Graph. 32(6), 2171–2178 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fang, C., Zhang, C., Chang, E.-C.: An optimization model for aesthetic two-dimensional barcodes. In: Gurrin, C., Hopfgartner, F., Hurst, W., Johansen, H., Lee, H., O’Connor, N. (eds.) MMM 2014. LNCS, vol. 8325, pp. 278–290. Springer, Heidelberg (2014). doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-04114-8_24
  3. 3.
    Fujita, K., Kuribayashi, M., Morii, M.: Expansion of image displayable area in design QR code and its applications. In: Proceedings FIT 2011, pp. 517–5520 (2011)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kuribayashi, M., Morii, M.: Enrichment of visual appearance of aesthetic QR code. In: Shi, Y.-Q., Kim, H.J., Pérez-González, F., Echizen, I. (eds.) IWDW 2015. LNCS, vol. 9569, pp. 220–231. Springer, Heidelberg (2016). doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-31960-5_18 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    logoQ. http://logoq.net. Accessed 17 Aug 2016
  6. 6.
    Ono, S., Morinaga, K., Nakayama, S.: Two-dimensional barcode decoration based on real-coded genetic algorithm. In: Proceedings CEC 2008, pp. 1068–1073 (2008)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ono, S., Nakayama, S.: A system for decorating QR code with facial image based on interactive evolutionary computation and case-based reasoning. In: Proceedings NaBIC 2010, pp. 401–406 (2010)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    QR-JAM. https://www.risec.aist.go.jp/project/qrjam. Accessed 17 Aug 2016
  9. 9.
    Rother, C., Kolmogorov, V., Blake, A.: “GrabCut": Interactive foreground extraction using iterated graph cuts. ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 309–314 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Samretwit, D., Wakahara, T.: Measurement of reading charactristics of multiplexed image in QR code. In: Proceedings INCoS 2011, pp. 552–557 (2011)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Visualead. http://www.visualead.com. Accessed 17 Aug 2016
  12. 12.
    Wakahara, T., Yamamoto, T.: Image processing of 2-dimensional barcode. In: Proceedings NBiS 2011, pp. 484–490 (2011)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wakahara, T., Yamamoto, T., Ochi, H.: Image processing of dotted picture in the QR code of cellular phone. In: Proceedings 3PGCIC 2010, pp. 454–458 (2010)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhang, Y., Deng, S., Liu, Z., Wang, Y.: Aesthetic QR codes based on two-stage image blending. In: He, X., Luo, S., Tao, D., Xu, C., Yang, J., Hasan, M.A. (eds.) MMM 2015. LNCS, vol. 8936, pp. 183–194. Springer, Heidelberg (2015). doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-14442-9_16 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Minoru Kuribayashi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ee-Chien Chang
    • 2
  • Nobuo Funabiki
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate School of Natural Science and TechnologyOkayama UniversityOkayamaJapan
  2. 2.School of ComputingNational University of SingaporeSingaporeRepublic of Singapore

Personalised recommendations