Watermarking with Fixed Decoder for Aesthetic 2D Barcode

  • Minoru KuribayashiEmail author
  • Ee-Chien Chang
  • Nobuo Funabiki
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10082)


An aesthetic 2D-barcode, e.g. QR code, carries a given message in the payload and yet its visual appearance resembles another given logo image. The requirement of embedding a message in a “cover” image is similar to digital watermarking but with a crucial difference that, for the aesthetic 2D-barcode, the decoder is predetermined and fixed. Hence the designs and performances of the aesthetic 2D-barcode heavily rely on the predetermined decoder. In this paper, we focus on the underlying systematic encoding function in QR code. We first formulate a framework that optimizes the visual appearance of the codeword and yet meets the coding requirement. Since finding such an optimal codeword is computationally expensive, we next propose a heuristic to search for a feasible solution, and incorporate image processing operations to enhance the visual appearance. Although our method is designed for QR code, our approach can be applied to other 2D-barcodes that employ similar coding mechanisms of error correction code.


Visual Quality Watermark Image Visual Appearance Information Symbol Visual Distance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This research was partially supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP16K00185.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Minoru Kuribayashi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ee-Chien Chang
    • 2
  • Nobuo Funabiki
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate School of Natural Science and TechnologyOkayama UniversityOkayamaJapan
  2. 2.School of ComputingNational University of SingaporeSingaporeRepublic of Singapore

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