Geodynamic Control of Hypogene Karst Development in Central Anatolia, Turkey

  • C. Serdar BayarıEmail author
  • N. Nur Özyurt
  • A. Koray Törk
  • Pınar Avcı
  • İ. Noyan Güner
  • Emrah Pekkan
Part of the Cave and Karst Systems of the World book series (CAKASYWO)


Hypogene karst development in central Anatolia, Turkey is represented by unique collapse dolines (obruks) developed mainly in Neogene lacustrine limestone formations. Many of these obruks are located in two separate rectilinear zones, one of which appears to mark the suture zone between Tauride-Anatolian and Sakarya Zone tectonic blocks of the Anatolian plate. The other zone coincides with the alignment of three dormant volcanoes. Formation of obruks seems to be associated with upwelling of carbon dioxide released from deep-rooted igneous activity sources along these zones since Late Miocene. Formation of obruks still continues today, whereas the size of recent collapses is much smaller than ancient examples probably due to weakening volcanism. Recent obruk formations are observed in an area where the youngest volcanic activity seems to have occurred. Frequency of obruk formation increased in recent years because of the groundwater’s accelerating piezometric head decline. The stable carbon and noble gas isotope data previously obtained from regional groundwater samples suggested both crustal and mantle sources for the carbon dioxide required for obruk formation. It seems likely that many of the large-scale karst cavity-collapse structures in the world are linked with excessive carbon dioxide release from mantle in orogenic plateaus like central Anatolia.


Obruk Hypogene karst Volcanogenic carbon dioxide Konya Basin Turkey 



The ideas expressed in this paper have evolved in years through discussions with many colleagues. We particularly appreciate the discussions with Dr A. Klimchouk (Natl. Academy of Science of Ukraine, on hypogenesis), Dr N. Plummer (USGS, on groundwater radiocarbon age modeling), and Dr K. Solomon (University of Utah, on evaluating noble gas data). Some of the presented data have been collected with the in-kind and financial support of the following institutions: The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK grant no 108Y004), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA grant no TUR-16283), and Isotope Hydrology Laboratory of the Water Authority of Jordan. Comments of anonymous reviewers helped to improve the manuscript. The authors declare no conflicting interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Serdar Bayarı
    • 1
    Email author
  • N. Nur Özyurt
    • 2
  • A. Koray Törk
    • 3
  • Pınar Avcı
    • 2
  • İ. Noyan Güner
    • 4
  • Emrah Pekkan
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Geological EngineeringHacettepe UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Geological Engineering, Hydrogeological Engineering SectionHacettepe UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Cave and Karst Research UnitGeneral Directorate of Mineral Research and ExplorationAnkaraTurkey
  4. 4.Hydrogeological Research UnitGeneral Directorate of Mineral Research and ExplorationAnkaraTurkey
  5. 5.Research Institute of Satellite and Space SciencesAnadolu UniversityEskisehirTurkey

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