Fluid Flow Systems and Hypogene Karst of the Transdanubian Range, Hungary—With Special Emphasis on Buda Thermal Karst

  • Judit Mádl-SzőnyiEmail author
  • Anita Erőss
  • Ádám Tóth
Part of the Cave and Karst Systems of the World book series (CAKASYWO)


Carbonate regions have great economic importance for water supply, oil and gas reservoirs, geothermal fluids and also Mississippi Valley-type ore deposits. Therefore, the understanding and consequences of flow pattern in carbonates require special interest. The hypogene and epigene karst areas of carbonate sequences were distinguished and associated with different orders of groundwater flow. However, the effect of confinement on flow pattern of carbonate aquifers was not fully considered in previous studies. We demonstrated the most important prerequisites and consequences of the application of the gravity-driven regional groundwater flow concept for carbonate sequences at different degrees of confinement. The results put into a frame the distribution of different springs and caves (epigene and hypogene) of the carbonate system of the Transdanubian Range, Hungary, and provide insights for better understanding of the hydrogeology of areas with similar unconfined and confined settings. Relationship among different flow regimes, distribution and character of springs and hypogene karstification processes, in addition to natural discharge-related phenomena, such as mineral and microbial precipitates, were recognized in the area of Buda Thermal Karst. This area is a natural laboratory where the connection between groundwater flow and karstification processes can be studied.


Spring Groundwater flow Mineral and microbial precipitate Confined and unconfined carbonate aquifers Basinal fluid 



The research was supported by the Hungarian OTKA Research Fund (NK 101356).


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Judit Mádl-Szőnyi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Anita Erőss
    • 1
  • Ádám Tóth
    • 1
  1. 1.József and Erzsébet Tóth Endowed Hydrogeology Chair, Department of Physical and Applied GeologyEötvös Loránd UniversityBudapestHungary

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