Advertisement

Types and Settings of Hypogene Karst

  • Alexander KlimchoukEmail author
Chapter
  • 1.1k Downloads
Part of the Cave and Karst Systems of the World book series (CAKASYWO)

Abstract

This chapter discusses the notion of hypogene karst, reviews its diversity and further develops the hydrogeological approach to classifying hypogene karst and its settings. Since an understanding of hypogene karst requires much deeper and broader hydrogeological and geodynamic context as compared to more familiar epigene karst, this chapter provides an overview of basic concepts about fluid dynamics and hydrodynamic zoning of the upper crust and about the influence of the mantle processes on crustal fluids. The relationships of hypogene karstification with metasomatism and other processes of fluid-induced transformations of rocks are examined. It is argued that the phenomena of the so-called ghost-rock karstification (commonly attributed to epigene settings) and cavernous decay (commonly attributed to external weathering) are manifestations of hypogene karstification and related alteration of rocks around conduits. Genetic categorization and discrimination of characteristic settings of hypogene karst are based on consideration of driving forces and conditions for fluid circulation and ascending flow in the upper crust in the context of tectonic/geodynamic positions and history of regions. Development and distribution of hypogene karst of the artesian type in gravitational flow systems of cratons are governed by the basin’s configuration, topography and hydrostratigraphy. Hypogene karst of the endogenous type is governed by the geodynamic regimes and intimately related to cross-formational fluid-conducting systems. Hypogene karst is a significant component of fluid-induced lithogenesis and plays an important role in the porosity and permeability development in many sedimentary rocks and some metamorphic rocks.

Keywords

Hypogene karst Deep hydrogeology Geofluids Karst and metasomatism Hypogene karst types Hypogene karst settings 

References

  1. Agar SM, Geiger S (eds) (2014) Fundamental controls on fluid flow in carbonates: current workflow to emerging technologies. The Geological Society of London, Special Publications, p 406Google Scholar
  2. Ague JJ (2003) Fluid flow in the deep crust. In: Holland HD, Turrekian KK (eds) Treatise on geochemistry, vol 3. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 203–247Google Scholar
  3. Andreychouk V, Dublyansky Y, Ezhov Y, Lysenin G (2009) Karst in the Earth’s crust: its distribution and principal types. University of Silesia and Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology, Sosnowiec-SimferopolGoogle Scholar
  4. Audra P, Mocochain L, Bigot J, Nobecourt JC (2009) Hypogene cave patterns. In: Klimchouk AB, Ford DC (eds) Hypogene speleogenesis and karst hydrogeology of artesian basins. Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology, Simferopol, pp 23–32Google Scholar
  5. Audra P, Palmer AN (2015) Research frontiers in speleogenesis. Dominant processes, hydrogeological conditions and resulting cave patterns. Acta Carsologica 44(3):315–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bagdasarova MV (2001) Features of fluid systems of oil and gas accumulation zones and geodynamic types of oil and gas fields. Geol Nefti i Gaza (Russia) 3:50–56 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  7. Bailey RC (1990) Trapping of aqueous fluids in the deep crust. Geophys Res Lett 17:1129–1132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barlow PM (2003) Ground water in freshwater-saltwater environments of the Atlantic Coast. US Geological Survey, Reston, VirginiaGoogle Scholar
  9. Bayari CS, Özyurt N, Pekkan E (2009) Giant collapse structures formed by hypogenic karstification: the obruks of the Central Anatolia, Turkey. In: Klimchouk AB, Ford DC (eds) Hypogene speleogenesis and karst hydrogeology of Artesian Basins, Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology, Special Paper n. 1, Simferopol, pp 83–90Google Scholar
  10. Beaudoin N, Bellahsen N, Lacombe O, Emmanuel L (2011) Fracture-controlled paleohydrogeology in a basement-cored, fault-related fold: Sheep Mountain Anticline, Wyoming, United States. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 12:Q06011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beaudoin N, Huyghe D, Bellahsen N et al (2015) Fluid systems and fracture development during syn-depositional fold growth: an example from the Pico del Aguila anticline, Sierras Exteriores, southern Pyrenees, Spain. J Struct Geol 70:3–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bebout GE (2013) Metasomatism in subduction zones of subducted oceanic slabs, mantle wedges, and the slab-mantle interface. In: Harlov DE, Austrheim H (eds) Metasomatism and the chemical transformation of rock. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 289–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Belenitskaya GA (2011) “Fluid” branch of lithology: state of the art, objects, and challenges. Uchenyye Zap Kazanskogo Universiteta (Russia) 153(4):97–113 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  14. Betzler C, Lindhorst S, Hübscher C, Lüdmann T (2011) Giant pockmarks in a carbonate platform (Maldives, Indian Ocean). Mar Geol 289:1–16. doi: 10.1016/j.margeo.2011.09.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bigot JY (2010) Le karst du gypse. In: Audra P (ed) Grottes et karsts de France. Karstologia Mémoires, Association française de karstologie 19:86–87Google Scholar
  16. Bjørlykke K (1993) Fluid flow in sedimentary basins. Sediment Geol 86(1):137–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bjørlykke K, Mo A, Palm E (1988) Modelling of thermal convection in sedimentary basins and its relevance to diagenetic reactions. Mar Pet Geol 5(4):338–351Google Scholar
  18. Brandmeier M, Kuhlemann J, Krumrei I et al (2011) New challenges for tafoni research. A new approach to understand processes and weathering rates. Earth Surf Process Land 36(6):839–852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bredehoeft JD, Back W, Hanshaw BB (1982) Regional ground-water flow concepts in the United States: historical perspective. GSA Spec Pap 189:295–316Google Scholar
  20. Breeding CM, Ague JJ (2002) Slab-derived fluids and quartz-vein formation in an accretionary prism, Otago Schist, New Zealand. Geology 30:499–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brod LG (1964) Artesian origin of fissure caves in Missouri. National Speleol Soc Bull 26(3):83–112Google Scholar
  22. Bucher K, Stober I (2010) Fluids in the upper crust. Geofluids 10:241–253Google Scholar
  23. Budd DA, Vacher HL (2004) Matrix permeability of the confined Floridan Aquifer, Florida, USA. Hydrogeol J 12:531–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Caciagli NC, Manning CE (2003) The solubility of calcite in water at 6–16 kbar and 500–800 °C. Contrib Mineral Petrol 146:275–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cartwright J, Santamarina C (2015) Seismic characteristics of fluid escape pipes in sedimentary basins: implications for pipe genesis. Mar Petrol Geol 65:126–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Castany G (1981) Hydrogeology of deep aquifers. The hydrogeological basin as the basis of groundwater management. Episodes 3:18–22Google Scholar
  27. Cathles III LM, Adams JJ (2005) Fluid flow and petroleum and mineral resources in the upper (< 20-km) continental crust. In: Hedenquist JW, Thompson JFH, Goldfarb RJ, RJP (eds) Economic geology; one hundredth anniversary volume, 1905–2005, Society of Economic Geologists, Littleton, CO, United States, pp 77–110Google Scholar
  28. Chen D, Wu S, Vӧlker D, Dong D et al (2015) Tectonically induced, deep-burial paleocollapses in the Zhujiang Miocene carbonate platform in the northern South China Sea. Mar Geol 364:43–52. doi: 10.1016/j.margeo.2015.03.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chilingar GV, Buryakovsky LA, Eremenko NA et al (2005) Oil and gas bearing rocks. Dev Pet Sci 52:19–38Google Scholar
  30. Condie KC (2001) mantle plumes and their record in Earth history. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Connolly JAD (1997) Devolatilization-generated fluid pressure and deformation-propagated fluid flow during prograde regional metamorphism. J Geophys Res 102:18149–18173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Connolly JAD (2010) The mechanics of metamorphic fluid expulsion. Elements 6:165–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Connolly JAD, Podladchikov YY (2013) A hydromechanical model for lower crustal fluid flow. In: Harlov DE, Austrheim H (eds) Metasomatism and the chemical transformation of rock. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 599–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Crossey LJ, Fischer TP, Patchett PJ et al (2006) Dissected hydrologic system at the Grand Canyon: interaction between deeply derived fluids and plateau aquifer waters in modern springs and travertine. Geology 34(1):25–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Crossey LJ, Karlstrom KE, Schmandt B et al (2016) Continental smokers couple mantle degassing and distinctive microbiology within continents. Earth Planet Sci Lett 435(2016):22–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Crossey LJ, Karlstrom KE, Springer A et al (2009) Degassing of mantle-derived CO2 and 3He from springs in the southern Colorado Plateau region-flux rates, neotectonics connections, and implications for understanding the groundwater system. Geol Soc Am Bull 121:1034–1053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Crossey LJ, Shand P, Karlstrom KE et al (2011) The mound springs of the Great Artesian Basin, Australia: origin of a long-lived linked system of CO2-rich springs and travertines. In: Abstracts of the 11th Australasian environmental isotope conference & 4th Australasian Research Conference, Cairns, 12–14 July 2011, James Cook University, p 72Google Scholar
  38. Cubitt JM, England WA, Larter S (eds) (2004) Understanding petroleum reservoirs: Towards an integrated reservoir engineering and geochemical approach. Geological Society, London, Special Publications vol 237Google Scholar
  39. Cunningham KJ, Walker C (2009) Seismic-sag structural systems in Tertiary carbonate rocks beneath southeastern Florida, USA: evidence for hypogenic speleogenesis? In: Klimchouk A, Ford D (eds) Hypogene speleogenesis and karst hydrogeology of artesian basins. Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology Special Paper 1, Simferopol, pp 151–158Google Scholar
  40. Davies GR, Smith LB Jr (2006) Structurally controlled hydrothermal dolomite reservoir facies: an overview. AAPG Bulletin 90(11):1641–1690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. De Waele J, Audra P, Madonia G et al (2016) Sulphuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) close to the water table: examples from southern France, Austria, and Sicily. Geomorphology 253:452–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Deming D (1994) Fluid flow and heat transport in the upper continental crust. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 78:27–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Deming DC (2001) Introduction to hydrogeology. McGraw-Hill ISBN, Dubuque, IowaGoogle Scholar
  44. Djunin VI (2000) Hydrogeodynamics of deep horizons of oil-gas basins. Nauchnyy Mir, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  45. Djunin VI, Korzun VI (2005) Hydrogeodynamics of oil-gas basins. Nauchnyy Mir, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  46. Dolejs D, Manning CE (2010) Thermodynamic model for mineral solubility in aqueous fluids: theory, calibration and application to model fluid-flow systems. Geofluids 10:20–40Google Scholar
  47. Dreybrodt W, Romanov D, Kaufmann G (2009) Evolution of isolated caves in porous limestone by mixing of phreatic water and surface water at the water table of unconfined aquifers: a model approach. J Hydrol 376:200–2008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Dubljansky YV (2000) Hydrothermal speleogenesis in the Hungarian Karst. In: Klimchouk A, Ford DC, Palmer AN, Dreybrodt W (eds) Speleogenesis: evolution of karst aquifers. National Speleological Society, Huntsville, pp 298–303Google Scholar
  49. Dublyansky YV (2013) Karstification by geothermal waters. In: Shroder J (Editor in Chief), Frumkin A (ed) Treatise on geomorphology, vol 6 karst geomorphology. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 57–71Google Scholar
  50. Dubois C, Quinif Y, Baele JM et al (2014) The process of ghost-rock karstification and its role in the formation of cave systems. Earth-Sci Rev 131:116–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ernst RE and Buchan KL (eds) (2001) Mantle plumes: their identification through time. Geological Society of America Special Papers 352, Boulder, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  52. Etheridge MA, Wall VJ, Vernon RH (1983) The role of the fluid phase during regional metamorphism and deformation. J Metamorph Geol 1:205–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ezhov YA (1978) On chemical inversion in the subterranean hydrosphere. Sovetskaja Geologiia (Soviet Geol) 12:132–136 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  54. Ezhov YA, Lysenin GA (1986) Vertical hydrodynamic zoning of the Earth’s crust. Sovetskaja Geologiia (Sov Geol) 8:111–120 (In Russian)Google Scholar
  55. Ezhov YA, Lysenin GA (1988) The significance of the zone of transitional pressures in the subterranean hydrosphere. Sovetskaja Geologiia (Sov Geol) 8:107–114 (In Russian)Google Scholar
  56. Ezhov YA, Lysenin GP (1990) Vertical zonation of karst development. Izvestija AN SSSR serija geologii 4:108–116 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  57. Ezhov YA, Vdovin YP (1970) On the hydrodynamic zoning of the Earth’s crust. Sovetskaja Geologiia (Sov Geol) 8:66–76 (In Russian)Google Scholar
  58. Ezhov YA, Lysenin GP, Andreychouk VN, Dublyansky VN (1992) Karst in the Earth’s crust. Sibirskoye otdeleniye Instituta geologii, NovosibirskGoogle Scholar
  59. Ford DC, Williams PW (1989) Karst geomorphology and hydrology. Unwin Hyman, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Fournier RO (1991) The transition from hydrostatic to greater than hydrostatic fluid pressures in presently active continental hydrothermal systems in crystalline rock. Geophys Res Lett 18:955–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Frape SK, Blyth A, Blomqvist R et al (2004) Deep fluids in the continents: II. Crystalline rocks. In: Drever JI, Holland HD, Turekian KK (eds) Treatise on geochemistry vol 5, Surface and ground water, weathering, and soils. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 541–580Google Scholar
  62. Freeze RA, Witherspoon PA (1966) Theoretical analysis of regional groundwater flow. 2. Effect of water-table configuration and subsurface permeability variations. Water Resour Res 3(2):623–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. French SW, Romanowicz B (2015) Broad plumes rooted at the base of the Earth’s mantle beneath major hotspots. Nature 525:95–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Frost R, Bucher K (1994) Is water responsible for geophysical anomalies in the deep continental crust? A petrological perspective. Tectonophysics 231:293–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Fyfe WS, Price NJ, Thompson AB (1978) Fluids in the Earth’s crust. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  66. Galloway WE, Hobday DK (1996) Depositional systems and basin hydrology. In: Galloway WE, Hobday DK (eds) Terrigenous clastic depositional systems, pp 297–326Google Scholar
  67. Garven G (1985) The role of regional fluid-flow in the genesis of the Pine Point deposit, western Canada sedimentary basin. Econ Geol 80:307–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Gary MO, Sharp JM (2006) Volcanogenic karstification of Sistema Zacatón, Mexico. In: Harmon RS, Wicks CW (eds) Perspectives on karst geomorphology, hydrology and geochemistry, GSA Special Paper 404. Boulder, Colorado, pp 79–89Google Scholar
  69. Girinsky NK (1947) Some questions of groundwater dynamics. Gidrogeologija i inzhenernaja geologija (USSR) 9:27–32 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  70. Goudie AS, Viles HA (1997) Tafoni, alveoles, honeycombs, and overhangs, in salt weathering hazards. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  71. Groom KM, Allen CD, Mol L et al (2015) Defining tafoni: re-examining terminological ambiguity for cavernous rock decay phenomena. Prog Phys Geogr 39(6):775–793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hanor JS (1987) Origin and migration of subsurface sedimentary brines. SEPM short course lecture notes 21, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogis, TulsaGoogle Scholar
  73. Hantush MS, Jacob CE (1954) Plane potential flow of ground water with linear leakage. EOS Trans AGU 35(6):917–936. doi: 10.1029/TR035i006p00917 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hantush MS, Jacob CE (1955) Nonsteady radial flow in an infinite leaky aquifer. Trans Am Geophys Union 36:95–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Harlov DE, Austrheim H (eds) (2013) Metasomatism and the chemical transformation of rock. Springer, Berlin-HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  76. Hiscock KM, Bense VF (2014) Hydrogeology: principles and practice, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  77. Hitchon B (1969) Fluid flow in western Canada sedimentary basin 1. Effect of topography. Water Resour Res 5:186–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hovland M (2003) Geomorphological, geophysical, and geochemical evidence of fluid flow through the seabed. J Geochem Explor 78:287–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hovland M, Gardner JV, Judd AG (2002) The significance of pockmarks to understanding fluid flow processes and geohazards. Geofluids 2(2):127–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hughes JD, Vacher HL, Sanford WE (2007) Three-dimensional flow in the Florida platform: theoretical analysis of Kohout convection at its type locality. Geology 35(7):663–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Huntoon PW (1995) Is it appropriate to apply porous media groundwater circulation models to karstic aquifers? In: El-Kadi A (ed) Groundwater models for resources analysis and management. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, pp 339–358Google Scholar
  82. Ignatovich NK (1950) Zoning, formation and activity of groundwater in relation with geostructures development. In: Voprosy gidrogeologii I inzhenernoy geologii [Questioins of hydrogeology and engineering geology] vol 13, Izdatelstvo MGU, Moscow, pp 6–22 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  83. Ingebritsen SE, Appold MS (2012) The physical hydrogeology of ore deposits. Econ Geol 107(4):559–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ingebritsen SE, Manning CE (2003) Implications of crustal permeability for fluid movement between terrestrial fluid reservoirs. J Geochem Explor 78–79:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ingebritsen SE, Manning CE (2010) Permeability of the continental crust: dynamic variations inferred from seismicity and metamorphism. Geofluids 10(1–2):193–205Google Scholar
  86. Ingebritsen SE, Sanford WE, Neuzil CE (2006) Groundwater in geologic processes, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  87. Italiano F, Yuce G, Uysal IT, Gasparon M, Morelli G (2013) Insights into mantle-type volatiles contribution from dissolved gases in artesian waters of the Great Artesian Basin, Australia. Chem Geol 378–379:75–88. doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2014.04.013 Google Scholar
  88. Ivanov SN (1966) Singularities of hydrothermal ore formation beneath the continental surface and sea. Doklady AN SSSR 169(1):177–180 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  89. Ivanov SN (1970) Maximum depth of open fractures and hydrodynamic zoning of the Earth’s crust. In: Exhegodnik Instituta geol. geochim. Uralskogo filiala AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk, pp 212–233 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  90. Ivanov SN, Ivanov KS (1993) Hydrodynamic zoning of the Earth’s crust and its significance. J Geodyn 17(4):155–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Jones GD, Xiao Y (2006) Geothermal convection in the Tengiz carbonate platform, Kazakhstan: reactive transport models of diagenesis and reservoir quality. AAPG Bull 90(8):1251–1272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Karlstrom KE, Crossey LJ, Hilton DR, Barry PH (2013) Mantle 3He and CO2 degassing in carbonic and geothermal springs of Colorado and implications for neotectonics of the Rocky Mountains. Geology 41(4):495–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Kartsev AA, Vagin SB, Baskov EA (1969) Paleohydrogeology. Nedra, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  94. Kennedy BM, Van Soest MC (2007) Flow of mantle fluids through the ductile lower crust: Helium isotope trends. Science 318(5855):1433–1436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kharaka YK, Hanor JS (2004) Deep fluids in the continents: I. sedimentary basins. In: Drever JI, Holland HD, Turekian KK (eds) Treatise on geochemistry vol 5, Surface and ground water, weathering, and soils. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 499–540Google Scholar
  96. Kirkinskaya VN, Smekhov EM (1981) Carbonate rocks—reservoirs of oil and gas. Nedra, Leningrad (in Russian)Google Scholar
  97. Kissin IG (1967) Hydrodynamic anomalies in the underground hydrosphere. Nauka, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  98. Kissin IG (1985) Hydrodynamic regime and geological cycle of water in the Earth’s crust. In: Underground waters and evolution of the lithosphere vol. 2, Nauka, Moscow, pp 31–35 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  99. Kissin IG (2009) Fluids in the Earth’s crust: geophysical and tectonic aspects. Nauka, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  100. Klimchouk AB (2007) Hypogene Speleogenesis: Hydrogeological and Morphogenetic Perspective. National Cave and Karst Research Institute, Special Paper No. 1, Carlsbad, New Mexico. 106 ppGoogle Scholar
  101. Klimchouk A (2012) Speleogenesis, hypogenic. In: Culver DC, White BW (eds) Encyclopedia of caves, 2nd edn. Elsevier, Chennai, pp 748–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Klimchouk AB (2013a) Hypogene speleogenesis. In: Shroder J (Editor in Chief), Frumkin A (ed) Treatise on geomorphology, vol 6 karst geomorphology. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 220–240Google Scholar
  103. Klimchouk AB (2013b) Hypogene speleogenesis, its hydrogeological significance and the role in evolution of karst. DIP, Simferopol (in Russian)Google Scholar
  104. Klimchouk AB (2013c) Hydrogeological approach to distinguishing hypogene speleogenesis settings. In: International symposium on hierarchical flow systems in Karst Regions, Book of Abstracts, Sep. 2013, Budapest, Hungary, pp 94Google Scholar
  105. Klimchouk A (2014) The methodological strength of the hydrological approach to distinguishing hypogene speleogenesis. In: Klimchouk A, Sasowsky ID, Mylroie JE et al (eds) Hypogene karst morphologies, Karst Waters Institute Special Publication 18, pp 4–12Google Scholar
  106. Klimchouk A (2015) The karst paradigm: changes, trends and perspectives. Acta Carsologica 44(3):289–313Google Scholar
  107. Klimchouk AB, Ford DC, Palmer AN, Dreybrodt W (eds) (2000) Speleogenesis: evolution of karst aquifers. National Speleological Society, Huntsville (AL), p 527Google Scholar
  108. Klimchouk AB, Pronin KK, Timokhina EI (2010) Speleogenesis in the Pontian limestones of Odessa. Speleol Karstology (Ukraine) 5:76–93 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  109. Klimchouk AB, Tymokhina EI, Amelichev GN et al (2013) Hypogene karst of the Crimean Piedmont and its geomorphological role. DIP, Simferopol (in Russian)Google Scholar
  110. Kohout FA, Henry HR, Banks JE (1977) Hydrology related to geothermal conditions of the Floridan Plateau. In: Smith KL, Griffin GM (eds) The geothermal nature of the Floridan Plateau, Florida Department of Natural Resources Bureau of Geology Special Publication 21, pp 1–34Google Scholar
  111. Korzhinskii DS (1953) Infiltration metasomatism at the presence of temperature gradient and contact metasomatic leaching. Zapiski Vses Mineral Obshch (Russia) 282:161–172 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  112. Korzhinskiy DS (1957) Physico-chemical basement of the mineral parageneses analysis. Nauka, Moscow (In Russian)Google Scholar
  113. Krause RE, Randolph RB (1989) Hydrology of the Floridan aquifer system in southeast Georgia and adjacent parts of Florida and South Carolina. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1403-D, USGS, Reston, VA (US)Google Scholar
  114. Kropotkin PN (1986) Degassing of Earth and the origin of hydrocarbons. Zjurnal Vsesojuznogo Khimicheskogo Obshchestva (USSR) 31(5):481–587 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  115. Kulongoski JT, Hilton DR, Izbicki JA (2005) Source and movement of helium in the eastern Morongo groundwater Basin: the influence of regional tectonics on crustal and mantle helium fluxes. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 69(15):3857–3872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Kyser K, Hiatt EE (2003) Fluids in sedimentary basins: an introduction. J Geochem Explor 80:139–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Land L, Huff GF (2010) Multi-tracer investigation of groundwater residence time in a karstic aquifer: Bitter Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico, USA. Hydrogeol J 18:455–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Land LA (2003) Evaporite karst and regional ground water circulation in the lower Pecos Valley. In: Johnson KS, Neal JT (eds) Evaporite Karst and engineering/environmental problems in the United States, Oklahoma Geological Survey Circular 109. Norman, Oklahoma Geological Survey, pp 227–232Google Scholar
  119. Larson RL (1991) Geological consequences of superplumes. Geology 19(10):963–966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Letnikov FA (1992) Super-deep fluid systems of Earth. Nauka, Novosibirsk (in Russian)Google Scholar
  121. Letnikov FA (2001) Super-deep fluid systems of Earth and problems of ore formation. Geologiya rudnych mestorozhdeniy 43(4):291–307 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  122. Letnikov FA, Dorogokupets PI (2001) To the question of the role of super-deep fluid systems of the Earth’s core in endogenous geological processes. Doklady NAN 378(4):535–537 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  123. Liebscher A (2010) Aqueous fluids at elevated pressure and temperature. Geofluids 10(1–2):3–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Lindgren W (1925) Metasomatism. GSA Bulletin 36(1):247–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Llamas MR, Cruces de Abia J (1978) Conceptual and digital models of the ground water flow in the Tertiary basin of the Tagus River (Spain). In: Proceedings of the international hydrogeological conference, Budapest, pp 186–202Google Scholar
  126. Lukin AE (2014) Fluid-induced lithogenesis—the most important direction of lithological research in XXI century. Geologichnyy Zhurnal (Ukraine) 4:27–42 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  127. Lukin AE (2015) The system “superplume—deep-seated segments of petroliferous basins”—an inexhaustible source of hydrocarbons. Geologichnyy Zhurnal (Ukraine) 2:7–20 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  128. Malyshev AE (2011) Gas factor in endogenous processes. Ekaterinburg (in Russian)Google Scholar
  129. Manning CE, Ingebritsen SE (1999) Permeability of the continental crust: implications of geothermal data and metamorphic systems. Rev Geophys 37:127–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Martini IP (1978) Tafoni weathering, with examples from Tuscany, Italy. Zeitschrift fur Geomorphol 22(1):44–67Google Scholar
  131. Maruyama S, Yuen DA, Windley BF (2007) Dynamics of plumes and superplumes through time. In: Yuen A, Naruyama S, Karato S-I et al (eds) Superplumes: beyond plate tectonics. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  132. McBride EF, Picard MD (2004) Origin of honeycombs and related weathering forms in Oligocene Macigno sandstone, Tuscan coast near Livorno, Italy. Earth Surf Process Land 29:713–735. doi: 10.1002/esp.1065 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. McCartney RA, Winefield P, Webb P, Kuhn O (2004) Spatial variations in the composition of formation waters from the central North Sea: implications for fluid flow in the deep high-pressure high-temperature hydrocarbon play. In: Cubitt JM, England WA and Larter S (eds) Understanding petroleum reservoirs: towards an integrated reservoir engineering and geochemical approach. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 237, pp 283–303Google Scholar
  134. Michaud F, Chabert A, Collot J-Y et al (2005) Fields of multi-kilometer scale sub-circular depressions in the Carnegie Ridge sedimentary blanket. Mar Geol 216(4):205–219. doi: 10.1016/j.margeo.2005.01.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Mjatiev AN (1947) Confined complex of underground waters and wells. Izvestija AN SSSR otd. tekhnich. nauk 9:33–47 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  136. Mukhin YV (1965) Processes of compaction of clay sediments. Nedra, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  137. Murakami M, Hirose K, Yurimoto H et al (2002) Water in Earth’s lower mantle. Science 295:1885–1887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Mustoe GE (1983) Origin of honeycomb weathering. GSA Bulletin 93:108–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Mylroie JE, Carew JL (1990) The flank margin model for dissolution cave development in carbonate platforms. Earth Surf Process Land 15:413–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Mylroie JE, Carew JL (1995) Karst development on carbonate islands. In: Budd DA, Harris PM, Saller A (eds) Unconformities and porosity in carbonate strata. AAPG Memoir 63:55 − 76Google Scholar
  141. Newell DL, Crossey LJ, Karlstrom KE et al (2005) Continental-scale links between the mantle and groundwater systems of the western United States: evidence from travertine springs and regional He data. GSA Today 15(12):4–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Newton RC, Manning CE (2002) Experimental determination of calcite solubility in H2O-NaCl solutions at deep crust/upper mantle pressures and temperatures: implications for metasomatic processes in shear zones. Am Mineral 87:1401–1409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Newton RC, Manning CE (2005) Solubility of anhydrite, CaSO4, in NaCl–H2O solutions at high pressures and temperatures: applications to fluid–rock interaction. J Petrology 46(4):701–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Northup DE, Dahm CN, Melim LA et al (2000) Evidence for geomicrobiological interactions in Guadalupe caves. J Cave Karst Studies 62(2):80–90Google Scholar
  145. Oppenheimer C, Fischer TP, Scaillet B (2014) Volcanic degassing: process and impact. In: Turekian KK, Holland HD (eds) Treatise on geochemistry, vol 4, 2nd edn., The CrustElsevier-Pergamon, Oxford, pp 111–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Palmer AN (1991) Origin and morphology of limestone caves. GSA Bulletin 103:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Palmer AN (2000) Hydrogeologic control of cave patterns. In: Ford D, Palmer A, Dreybrodt W (eds) Klimchouk A. Evolution of Karst Aquifers, National Speleological Society, Huntsville (AL), Speleogenesis, pp 77–90Google Scholar
  148. Palmer AN (2007) Cave geology. Cave Books, DaytonGoogle Scholar
  149. Palmer AN (2013) Sulfuric acid caves: morphology and evolution. In: Shroder J (Editor in Chief), Frumkin A (ed) Treatise on geomorphology, vol 6 karst geomorphology. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 241–257Google Scholar
  150. Paradise TR (2013) Tafoni and other rock basins. In: Shroder J (ed) Treatise on geomorphology. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 111–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Phillips OM (1991) Flow and Reactions in permeable rocks. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  152. Pinneker EV (1977) Problems of regional hydrogeology: regularities of distribution and formation of groundwaters. Nauka, NovosibirskGoogle Scholar
  153. Pinekker EV (ed) (1980) Principles of hydrogeology. General Hydrogeology, Nauka Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk, p 231Google Scholar
  154. Pinneker EV (1983) General hydrogeology. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  155. Poage MC, Chamberlain CP, Craw D (2000) Massif-wide metamorphism and fluid evolution at Nanga Parbat, northern Pakistan. Am J Sci 300:463–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Pospelov GL (1973) Paradoxes, physicochemical nature and mechanisms of metasomatism. Nauka, Novosibirsk (in Russian)Google Scholar
  157. Putnis A (2002) Mineral replacement reactions: from macroscopic observations to microscopic mechanisms. Mineral Mag 66:689–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Quinif Y, Bruxelles L (2011) L’altération de type “fantôme de roche”: processus, évolution et implications pour la karstification. Géomorphologie 4:349–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Rodriguez-Navarro C (1998) Evidence of honeycomb weathering on Mars. Geophys Res Lett 25(17):3249–3252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Rubenach M (2013) Structural controls of metasomatism on a regional scale. In: Harlov DE, Austrheim H (eds) Metasomatism and the chemical transformation of rock. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 93–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Schmandt B, Jacobsen SD, Becker TW et al (2014) Dehydration melting at the top of the lower mantle. Science 344(6189):1265–1268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Schmidt MW, Poli S (2014) Devolatilization during subduction. In: Turekian KK, Holland HD (eds) Treatise on geochemistry, vol 4, 2nd edn., The CrustElsevier-Pergamon, Oxford, pp 669–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Schmidt VA (1974) The paleohydrology of Laurel Caverns, Pennsylvania. In: Proceedings of the 4th conference on karst geology and hydrology, Morgantown, W.Va, West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, pp 123–128Google Scholar
  164. Shepherd M (2009) Oil field production geology. AAPG Memoir 91Google Scholar
  165. Sherwood-Lollar B, Ballentine CJ, O’Nions RK (1997) The fate of mantle-derived carbon in a continental sedimentary basin: integration of C/He relationships and stable isotopic signatures. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 61(11):2295–2307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Shestopalov VM (1981) Natural resources of underground water of platform artesian basins of Ukraine. Naukova Dumka, Kiev (In Russian)Google Scholar
  167. Shestopalov VM (1988) Methods of study of underground water natural resources. Nedra, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  168. Shestopalov VM (2014) On hydrodynamic zoning and water exchange in hydrogeologic structures. Geologichesky Zhurnal 4(349):9–26 (In Russian)Google Scholar
  169. Shestopalov VM (ed) (1989) Water exchange in hydrogeological structures of Ukraine. Water exchange under natural conditions, Naukova Dumka, Kiev (in Russian)Google Scholar
  170. Shmulovich KI, Yardley BWD, Gontchar GG (1994) Fluids in the crust. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  171. Shvartzev SL (1996) General hydrogeology. Nedra, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  172. Sibson RH, Moore JMM, Rankin AH (1975) Seismic pumping—a hydrothermal fluid transport mechanism. J Geol Soc 131(6):653–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Sokolov DS (1962) Principal conditions of karst development. Gosgeoltehizdat, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  174. Spechler RM (1994) Saltwater Intrusion and quality of water in the Floridan aquifer system, northeastern Florida. U.S. Geological survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 92-4174, USGS, Tallahassee, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  175. Spilde MN, Boston PJ, Northup DE (2003) Subterranean soil development. J Cave Karst Stud 65(3):188Google Scholar
  176. Spilde MN, Kooser A, Boston PJ at al (2009) Speleosol: a subterranean soil. In: Proceedings of the 15th international congress of speleology, Kerrville, Texas, pp 338–344Google Scholar
  177. Stober I, Bucher L (2004) Fluid sinks within the Earth’s crust. Geofluids 4:143–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Templeton AS, Chamberlain CP, Koons PO et al (1998) Stable isotopic evidence for mixing between metamorphic fluids and surface-derived waters during recent uplift of the southern Alps, New Zealand. Earth Planet Sci Lett 154:73–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Tóth J (1963) A theoretical analysis of groundwater flow in small drainage basins. J Geophys Res 68:4795–4812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Tóth J (1995) Hydraulic continuity in large sedimentary basins. Hydrogeol J 3(4):4–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Tóth J (2009) Gravitational systems of groundwater flow: theory, evaluation, utilization. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Turkington AV (2004) Cavernous weathering. In: Goudie AS (ed) Encyclopedia of geomorphology, vol 1. Routledge, London, pp 128–130Google Scholar
  183. Turkington AV, Phillips JD (2004) Cavernous weathering, dynamical instability and self-organization. Earth Surf Process Land 29:665–675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Turkington AV, Paradise TR (2005) Sandstone weathering: a century of research and innovation. Geomorphology 67(1):229–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Uma KO, Mosto Onuoha K (1997) Hydrodynamic flow and formation pressures in the Anambra basin, southern Nigeria. Hydrol Sci J 42(2):141–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Unsworth M, Rondenay S (2013) Mapping the distribution of fluids in the crust and lithospheric mantle utilizing geophysical methods. In: Harlov DE, Austrheim H (eds) Metasomatism and the chemical transformation of rock. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 535–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Vakhrushev BA (2009) Singularities of hypogene speleogenesis of the mountain-folded region of Western Caucasus. In: Klimchouk AB, Ford DC (eds) Hypogene speleogenesis and karst hydrogeology of Artesian Basins Special Paper 1. Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology, Simferopol, pp 271–276 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  188. Vartanyan GS (1977) Deposits of carbonated waters of mountain folded regions. Nedra, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  189. Vergari A (1998) Nouveau regard sur la spéléogénèse: le “pseudo-endokarst” du Tournaisis (Hainaut, Belgique). Karstologia 31:12–18Google Scholar
  190. Vergari A, Quinif Y (1997) Les paléokarsts du Hainaut (Belgique). Geodin Acta 10(4):175–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Viles H (2005) Self-organized or disorganized? Towards a general explanation of cavernous weathering. Earth Surf Process Land 30:1471–1473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Vsevolozhskiy VA (1983) Groundwater flow and water balance of platform structures. Nedra, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  193. Vsevolozhskiy VA (2007) Principles of hydrogeology. Moscow University Publ, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  194. Vsevologhskiy VA, Dyunin VI (1996) Analysis of hydrodynamics regularities of deep stratal aquifer systems. Vestnik MGU Serija geol. 3:61–72 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  195. Vsevolozhskiy VA, Kireeva TA (2009) On the problem of the formation of inversions in hydrochemical zoning. Vestnik MGU seriya Geologiya (Russia) 5:19–25 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  196. Vsevolozhskiy VA, Kireeva TA (2014) The role of endogenous fluids in the formation of vertical hydrogeological zoning of oil-gas-bearing basins of the platform type. Glubinnaja Neft (Deep Oil) 1, [http://journal.deepoil.ru/index] (in Russian)
  197. Warren J (2000) Dolomite: occurrence, evolution and economically important associations. Earth-Sci Rev 52(1):1–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Warren JK (2006) Evaporites: sediments, resources and hydrocarbons. Springer-Verlag, Berlin HeidelbergCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Webb JA, Grimes KG, Lewis ID (2010) Volcanogenic origin of cenotes near Mt Gambier, southeastern Australia. Geomorphology 119(1):23–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Weinlich FN, Tesar J, Weise SM et al (1998) Gas flux distribution in mineral springs and tectonic structures in the western Eger Rift. J Czech Geol Soc 43(1–2):91–110Google Scholar
  201. Wing BA, Ferry JM (2002) Three-dimensional geometry of metamorphic fluid flow during Barrovian regional metamorphism from an inversion of combined petrologic and stable isotopic data. Geology 30:639–643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Worthington SRH, Ford DC (2009) Self-organized permeability in carbonate aquifers. Ground Water 47(3):326–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Xu S, Nakai SI, Wakita H et al (1995) Helium isotope compositions in sedimentary basins in China. Appl Geochem 10(6):643–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Yardley BWD (2013) The chemical composition of metasomatic fluids in the crust. In: Harlow DE, Austrheim H (eds) metasomatism and the chemical transformation of rock the role of fluids in terrestrial and extraterrestrial processes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 17–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Yardley BW, Bodnar RJ (2014) Fluids in the continental crust. Geochem Perspect 3(1):1–2Google Scholar
  206. Young R, Young A (1992) Sandstone landforms, 11. Springer series in physical environment. Springer, Heidelberg-BerlinGoogle Scholar
  207. Yuen A, Naruyama S, Karato S-I et al (eds) (2007) Superplumes: beyond plate tectonics. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  208. Zharikov V, Pertsev N, Rusinov V et al (2007) Metasomatism and metasomatic rocks. In: Fettes D, Desmons J (eds) Metamorphic rocks: a classification and glossary of terms. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 58–68Google Scholar
  209. Zharikov VA, Rusinov VL, Marakushev AA et al (1998) Metasomatism and metasomatic rocks. Nauchnyy Mir, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  210. Zverev VP (1999) Mass flows of the underground hydrosphere. Nauka, Moscow, pp 96 (in Russian)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Geological Sciences, National Academy of Sciences of UkraineKievUkraine

Personalised recommendations