Cognitive Impairment/Dementia in Chronic Renal Disease

  • Luis Augusto Juncos
  • Kiran Chandrashekar
  • Luis Isaías Juncos


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem that is increasing in prevalence, especially in the elderly. CKD and/or end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients have numerous comorbidities that increase the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia (CI/D). In fact, almost every stage of CKD is associated with an increased risk of CI/D; the risk increases as the severity of CKD increases. The mechanisms responsible for this increased risk are largely due to the accelerated vascular disease of CKD/ESRD that leads to an increase in vascular dementia. However, other factors such as increased risk of thrombotic and hemorrhagic strokes, uremic toxins, and suboptimal aspects of dialytic therapies also contribute to the development and progression of CI/D. The importance of CI/D in CKD/ESRD patients is that it impairs quality of life, and carries with it a greater risk of hospitalization, disability, dialysis withdrawal, and mortality. Despite the magnitude of the problem, CI/D is largely under-recognized in the renal patient, and optimal management strategies are unknown. The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of the epidemiology, pathogenesis/pathophysiology, diagnostic approaches, and therapeutic considerations for CI/D in patients with CKD/ESRD.


Dialysis dementia Vascular dementia in chronic kidney disease White matter lesions and kidney disease Uremic encephalopathy Cognitive impairment in chronic kidney disease Dialysis-induced mental disequilibrium 


  1. 1.
    Shiao CC, Wu PC, Huang TM, Lai TS, Yang WS, Wu CH, et al. Long-term remote organ consequences following acute kidney injury. Crit Care. 2015;19:438.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nongnuch A, Panorchan K, Davenport A. Brain–kidney crosstalk. Crit Care. 2014;18(3):225.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Liu M, Liang Y, Chigurupati S, Lathia JD, Pletnikov M, Sun Z, et al. Acute kidney injury leads to brain inflammation and functional changes. J Am Soc Nephrol JASN. 2008;19(7):1360–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mazumder MK, Giri A, Kumar S, Borah A. A highly reproducible mice model of chronic kidney disease: evidences of behavioural abnormalities and blood–brain barrier disruption. Life Sci. 2016;161:27–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chillon J-M, Massy ZA, Stengel B. Neurological complications in chronic kidney disease patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2016;31(10):1606–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Krishnan AV, Kiernan MC. Neurological complications of chronic kidney disease. Nat Rev Neurol. 2009;5(10):542–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Novak M, Winkelman JW, Unruh M. Restless legs syndrome in patients with chronic kidney disease. Semin Nephrol. 2015;35(4):347–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rizzo MA, Frediani F, Granata A, Ravasi B, Cusi D, Gallieni M. Neurological complications of hemodialysis: state of the art. J Nephrol. 2012;25(2):​170–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brouns R, De Deyn PP. Neurological complications in renal failure: a review. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2004;107(1):1–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kelley AS, McGarry K, Gorges R, Skinner JS. The burden of health care costs for patients with dementia in the last 5 years of life. Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(10):729–36.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kurella Tamura M, Yaffe K. Dementia and cognitive impairment in ESRD: diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Kidney Int. 2011;79(1):14–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gaxatte C, Daroux M, Bloch J, Puisieux F, Deramecourt V, Boulanger E. Cognitive impairment and chronic kidney disease: which links? Nephrol Ther. 2011;7(1):10–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    McQuillan R, Jassal SV. Neuropsychiatric complications of chronic kidney disease. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2010;6(8):471–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Prohovnik I, Post J, Uribarri J, Lee H, Sandu O, Langhoff E. Cerebrovascular effects of hemodialysis in chronic kidney disease. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2007;27(11):1861–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Toyoda K, Fujii K, Fujimi S, Kumai Y, Tsuchimochi H, Ibayashi S, et al. Stroke in patients on maintenance hemodialysis: a 22-year single-center study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2005;45(6):1058–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Patel N, Dalal P, Panesar M. Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome: a narrative review. Semin Dial. 2008;21(5):​493–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rakowski DA, Caillard S, Agodoa LY, Abbott KC. Dementia as a predictor of mortality in dialysis patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;1(5):​1000–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ying I, Levitt Z, Jassal SV. Should an elderly patient with stage V CKD and dementia be started on dialysis? Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;9(5):971–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    System USRD. USRDS 2006 annual data report: atlas of end-stage renal disease in the United States. Bethesda: National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; 2006.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Murtagh FE, Marsh JE, Donohoe P, Ekbal NJ, Sheerin NS, Harris FE. Dialysis or not? A comparative survival study of patients over 75 years with chronic kidney disease stage 5. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007;22(7):1955–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Abbott KC, Glanton CW, Trespalacios FC, Oliver DK, Ortiz MI, Agodoa LY, et al. Body mass index, dialysis modality, and survival: analysis of the United States Renal Data System Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Wave II Study. Kidney Int. 2004;65(2):​597–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kurella M, Chertow GM, Luan J, Yaffe K. Cognitive impairment in chronic kidney disease. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004;52(11):1863–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kurella Tamura M, Larive B, Unruh ML, Stokes JB, Nissenson A, Mehta RL, et al. Prevalence and correlates of cognitive impairment in hemodialysis patients: the Frequent Hemodialysis Network trials. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;5(8):1429–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Murray AM, Tupper DE, Knopman DS, Gilbertson DT, Pederson SL, Li S, et al. Cognitive impairment in hemodialysis patients is common. Neurology. 2006;67(2):216–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sehgal AR, Grey SF, DeOreo PB, Whitehouse PJ. Prevalence, recognition, and implications of mental impairment among hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis. 1997;30(1):41–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jin YP, Gatz M, Johansson B, Pedersen NL. Sensitivity and specificity of dementia coding in two Swedish disease registries. Neurology. 2004;63(4):739–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pereira AA, Weiner DE, Scott T, Chandra P, Bluestein R, Griffith J, et al. Subcortical cognitive impairment in dialysis patients. Hemodial Int. 2007;11(3):309–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nasreddine ZS, Phillips NA, Bedirian V, Charbonneau S, Whitehead V, Collin I, et al. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53(4):695–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Crum RM, Anthony JC, Bassett SS, Folstein MF. Population-based norms for the Mini-Mental State Examination by age and educational level. JAMA. 1993;269(18):2386–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Services DoHaHSCfMM. ESRD medical evidence report-CMS2728. Revised on 2006-03-01.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kurella M, Mapes DL, Port FK, Chertow GM. Correlates and outcomes of dementia among dialysis patients: the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2006;21(9):​2543–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Murray AM. Cognitive impairment in the aging dialysis and chronic kidney disease populations: an occult burden. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2008;15(2):​123–32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jha V, Garcia-Garcia G, Iseki K, Li Z, Naicker S, Plattner B, et al. Chronic kidney disease: global dimension and perspectives. Lancet. 2013;382(9888):​260–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion DoDT, CDC. National Chronic Kidney Disease Fact Sheet, 2014. 2014:1–4.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kurella Tamura M, Wadley V, Yaffe K, McClure LA, Howard G, Go R, et al. Kidney function and cognitive impairment in US adults: the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2008;52(2):​227–34.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Petersen RC. Mild cognitive impairment. N Engl J Med. 2011;364(23):2227–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Busse A, Hensel A, Guhne U, Angermeyer MC, Riedel-Heller SG. Mild cognitive impairment: long-term course of four clinical subtypes. Neurology. 2006;67(12):2176–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lopez OL, Jagust WJ, DeKosky ST, Becker JT, Fitzpatrick A, Dulberg C, et al. Prevalence and classification of mild cognitive impairment in the Cardiovascular Health Study Cognition Study: part 1. Arch Neurol. 2003;60(10):1385–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bugnicourt J-M, Godefroy O, Chillon J-M, Choukroun G, Massy ZA. Cognitive disorders and dementia in CKD: the neglected kidney–brain axis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;24(3):353–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Etgen T. Kidney disease as a determinant of cognitive decline and dementia. Alzheimer’s Res Ther. 2015;7(1):29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lu R, Kiernan MC, Murray A, Rosner MH, Ronco C. Kidney–brain crosstalk in the acute and chronic setting. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2015;11(12):707–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Weiner DE, Seliger SL. Cognitive and physical function in chronic kidney disease. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2014;23(3):291–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Weiner DE, Sarnak MJ. A decade after the KDOQI CKD guidelines: impact on the cardiovascular disease–CKD paradigm. Am J Kidney Dis. 2012;​60(5):710–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Khatri M, Nickolas T, Moon YP, Paik MC, Rundek T, Elkind MSV, et al. CKD associates with cognitive decline. J Am Soc Nephrol JASN. 2009;20(11):​2427–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kurella M, Yaffe K, Shlipak MG, Wenger NK, Chertow GM. Chronic kidney disease and cognitive impairment in menopausal women. Am J Kidney Dis. 2005;45(1):66–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Seliger SL, Siscovick DS, Stehman-Breen CO, Gillen DL, Fitzpatrick A, Bleyer A, et al. Moderate renal impairment and risk of dementia among older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Cognition Study. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004;15(7):1904–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hugo J, Ganguli M. Dementia and cognitive impairment: epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Clin Geriatr Med. 2014;30(3):421–42.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Helmer C, Stengel B, Metzger M, Froissart M, Massy ZA, Tzourio C, et al. Chronic kidney disease, cognitive decline, and incident dementia: the 3C Study. Neurology. 2011;77(23):2043–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Seliger SL, Longstreth Jr WT, Katz R, Manolio T, Fried LF, Shlipak M, et al. Cystatin C and subclinical brain infarction. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16(12):​3721–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Seliger SL, Sarnak MJ. Subclinical vascular disease of the brain in dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis. 2007;50(1):8–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Elias MF, Elias PK, Seliger SL, Narsipur SS, Dore GA, Robbins MA. Chronic kidney disease, creatinine and cognitive functioning. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009;24(8):2446–52.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Madan P, Kalra OP, Agarwal S, Tandon OP. Cognitive impairment in chronic kidney disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007;22(2):440–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Etgen T, Sander D, Chonchol M, Briesenick C, Poppert H, Förstl H, et al. Chronic kidney disease is associated with incident cognitive impairment in the elderly: the INVADE study. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009;24(10):3144–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Slinin Y, Paudel ML, Ishani A, Taylor BC, Yaffe K, Murray AM, et al. Kidney function and cognitive performance and decline in older men. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008;56(11):2082–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Report UAD. Chapter II: incidence and prevalence of ESRD. 1999.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Collins AJ, Kasiske B, Herzog C, Chavers B, Foley R, Gilbertson D, et al. Excerpts from the United States Renal Data System 2006 Annual Data Report. Am J Kidney Dis. 2007;49(1 Suppl 1):A6–7, S1–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Leinau L, Murphy TE, Bradley E, Fried T. Relationship between conditions addressed by hemodialysis guidelines and non-ESRD-specific conditions affecting quality of life. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;4(3):572–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Fukunishi I, Kitaoka T, Shirai T, Kino K, Kanematsu E, Sato Y. Psychiatric disorders among patients undergoing hemodialysis therapy. Nephron. 2002;91(2):​344–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bernick C, Kuller L, Dulberg C, Longstreth Jr WT, Manolio T, Beauchamp N, et al. Silent MRI infarcts and the risk of future stroke: the cardiovascular health study. Neurology. 2001;57(7):1222–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Vermeer SE, Den Heijer T, Koudstaal PJ, Oudkerk M, Hofman A, Breteler MM, et al. Incidence and risk factors of silent brain infarcts in the population-based Rotterdam Scan Study. Stroke. 2003;34(2):​392–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Nakatani T, Naganuma T, Uchida J, Masuda C, Wada S, Sugimura T, et al. Silent cerebral infarction in hemodialysis patients. Am J Nephrol. 2003;23(2):​86–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Naganuma T, Uchida J, Tsuchida K, Takemoto Y, Tatsumi S, Sugimura K, et al. Silent cerebral infarction predicts vascular events in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 2005;67(6):2434–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Wetmore JB, Phadnis MA, Ellerbeck EF, Shireman TI, Rigler SK, Mahnken JD. Relationship between stroke and mortality in dialysis patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015;10(1):80–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kurella Tamura M, Meyer JB, Saxena AB, Huh JW, Wadley VG, Schiller B. Prevalence and significance of stroke symptoms among patients receiving maintenance dialysis. Neurology. 2012;79(10):981–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ovbiagele B. Chronic kidney disease and risk of death during hospitalization for stroke. J Neurol Sci. 2011;301(1–2):46–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Bozbas H, Atar I, Yildirir A, Ozgul A, Uyar M, Ozdemir N, et al. Prevalence and predictors of arrhythmia in end stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis. Ren Fail. 2007;29(3):331–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Aoki J, Ikari Y, Nakajima H, Mori M, Sugimoto T, Hatori M, et al. Clinical and pathologic characteristics of dilated cardiomyopathy in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 2005;67(1):333–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Darby AE, DiMarco JP. Management of atrial fibrillation in patients with structural heart disease. Circulation. 2012;125(7):945–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Anter E, Jessup M, Callans DJ. Atrial fibrillation and heart failure: treatment considerations for a dual epidemic. Circulation. 2009;119(18):2516–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Shen CH, Zheng CM, Kiu KT, Chen HA, Wu CC, Lu KC, et al. Increased risk of atrial fibrillation in end-stage renal disease patients on dialysis: a nationwide, population-based study in Taiwan. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016;95(25):e3933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    De Vriese AS, Caluwe R, Raggi P. The atrial fibrillation conundrum in dialysis patients. Am Heart J. 2016;174:111–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Boriani G, Savelieva I, Dan GA, Deharo JC, Ferro C, Israel CW, et al. Chronic kidney disease in patients with cardiac rhythm disturbances or implantable electrical devices: clinical significance and implications for decision making — a position paper of the European Heart Rhythm Association endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society and the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society. Europace. 2015;17(8):1169–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    System USRD. Chapter 4: cardiovascular disease in patients with CKD. 2015.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Wizemann V, Tong L, Satayathum S, Disney A, Akiba T, Fissell RB, et al. Atrial fibrillation in hemodialysis patients: clinical features and associations with anticoagulant therapy. Kidney Int. 2010;77(12):​1098–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Winkelmayer WC, Patrick AR, Liu J, Brookhart MA, Setoguchi S. The increasing prevalence of atrial fibrillation among hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;22(2):349–57.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Charytan DM, Foley R, McCullough PA, Rogers JD, Zimetbaum P, Herzog CA, et al. Arrhythmia and sudden death in hemodialysis patients: protocol and baseline characteristics of the Monitoring in Dialysis Study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2016;11(4):721–34.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Yaffe K, Ackerson L, Kurella Tamura M, Le Blanc P, Kusek JW, Sehgal AR, et al. Chronic kidney disease and cognitive function in older adults: findings from the chronic renal insufficiency cohort cognitive study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010;58(2):338–45.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Prins ND, van Dijk EJ, den Heijer T, Vermeer SE, Koudstaal PJ, Oudkerk M, et al. Cerebral white matter lesions and the risk of dementia. Arch Neurol. 2004;61(10):1531–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Toyoda K. Cerebral small vessel disease and chronic kidney disease. J Stroke. 2015;17(1):31–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Khatri M, Wright CB, Nickolas TL, Yoshita M, Paik MC, Kranwinkel G, et al. Chronic kidney disease is associated with white matter hyperintensity volume: the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS). Stroke. 2007;38(12):3121–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Debette S, Markus HS. The clinical importance of white matter hyperintensities on brain magnetic resonance imaging: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2010;341:c3666.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Brønnum-Hansen H, Davidsen M, Thorvaldsen P. Long-term survival and causes of death after stroke. Stroke. 2001;32(9):2131–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Saeed F, Kousar N, Qureshi K, Laurence TN. A review of risk factors for stroke in patients with chronic kidney disease. J Vasc Interv Neurol. 2009;2(1):126–31.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Power A. Stroke in dialysis and chronic kidney disease. Blood Purif. 2013;36(3–4):179–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Seliger SL, Gillen DL, Tirschwell D, Wasse H, Kestenbaum BR, Stehman-Breen CO. Risk factors for incident stroke among patients with end-stage renal disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2003;14(10):2623–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Yoo DJ, Agodoa L, Yuan CM, Abbott KC, Nee R. Risk of intracranial hemorrhage associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in patients with end stage renal disease. BMC Nephrol. 2014;15:39.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Linthorst GE, Avis HJ, Levi M. Uremic thrombocytopathy is not about urea. J Am Soc Nephrol JASN. 2010;21(5):753–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Galbusera M, Remuzzi G, Boccardo P. Treatment of bleeding in dialysis patients. Semin Dial. 2009;22(3):​279–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ho SJ, Gemmell R, Brighton TA. Platelet function testing in uraemic patients. Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 2008;13(1):49–58.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Di Minno G, Martinez J, McKean ML, De La Rosa J, Burke JF, Murphy S. Platelet dysfunction in uremia. Multifaceted defect partially corrected by dialysis. Am J Med. 1985;79(5):552–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Genovesi S, Santoro A. Warfarin and stroke outcomes in hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20(10):2090–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Harmon JP, Zimmerman DL, Zimmerman DL. Anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease: risks versus benefits review. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2013;22(6):624–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Iseki K, Kinjo K, Kimura Y, Osawa A, Fukiyama K. Evidence for high risk of cerebral hemorrhage in chronic dialysis patients. Kidney Int. 1993;44(5):​1086–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ochiai H, Uezono S, Kawano H, Ikeda N, Kodama K, Akiyama H. Factors affecting outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. Ren Fail. 2010;32(8):923–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kim JK, Shin JJ, Park SK, Hwang YS, Kim TH, Shin HS. Prognostic factors and clinical outcomes of acute intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with chronic kidney disease. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2013;54(4):296–301.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Schiffrin EL, Lipman ML, Mann JFE. Chronic kidney disease: effects on the cardiovascular system. Circulation. 2007;116(1):85–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Watanabe K, Watanabe T, Nakayama M. Cerebro-renal interactions: impact of uremic toxins on cognitive function. Neurotoxicology. 2014;44:184–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    De Deyn PP, Vanholder R, Eloot S, Glorieux G. Guanidino compounds as uremic (neuro)toxins. Semin Dial. 2009;22(4):340–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Seshadri S, Beiser A, Selhub J, Jacques PF, Rosenberg IH, D’Agostino RB, et al. Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(7):476–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Welch GN, Loscalzo J. Homocysteine and atherothrombosis. N Engl J Med. 1998;338(15):1042–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Harker LA, Harlan JM, Ross R. Effect of sulfinpyrazone on homocysteine-induced endothelial injury and arteriosclerosis in baboons. Circ Res. 1983;53(6):​731–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Haruna Y, Kashihara N, Satoh M, Tomita N, Namikoshi T, Sasaki T, et al. Amelioration of progressive renal injury by genetic manipulation of Klotho gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104(7):​2331–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Hu MC, Kuro-o M, Moe OW. Secreted Klotho and chronic kidney disease. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012;728:126–57.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Nagai T, Yamada K, Kim HC, Kim YS, Noda Y, Imura A, et al. Cognition impairment in the genetic model of aging Klotho gene mutant mice: a role of oxidative stress. FASEB J. 2003;17(1):50–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Zachara BA, Wlodarczyk Z, Masztalerz M, Adamowicz A, Gromadzinska J, Wasowicz W. Selenium concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activities in blood of patients before and after allogenic kidney transplantation. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2004;97(1):1–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Locatelli F, Canaud B, Eckardt KU, Stenvinkel P, Wanner C, Zoccali C. Oxidative stress in end-stage renal disease: an emerging threat to patient outcome. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2003;18(7):1272–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Filiopoulos V, Hadjiyannakos D, Takouli L, Metaxaki P, Sideris V, Vlassopoulos D. Inflammation and oxidative stress in end-stage renal disease patients treated with hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Int J Artif Organs. 2009;32(12):872–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Markesbery WR, Carney JM. Oxidative alterations in Alzheimer’s disease. Brain pathol (Zurich, Switzerland). 1999;9(1):133–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Grammas P, Ovase R. Inflammatory factors are elevated in brain microvessels in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2001;22(6):837–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    De Deyn PP, Vanholder R, D’Hooge R. Nitric oxide in uremia: effects of several potentially toxic guanidino compounds. Kidney Int Suppl. 2003;84:S25–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Bernstein H-G, Bogerts B, Keilhoff G. The many faces of nitric oxide in schizophrenia. A review. Schizophrenia Res. 2005;78(1):69–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Fujisaki K, Tsuruya K, Yamato M, Toyonaga J, Noguchi H, Nakano T, et al. Cerebral oxidative stress induces spatial working memory dysfunction in uremic mice: neuroprotective effect of tempol. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2014;29(3):529–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Sundelof J, Kilander L, Helmersson J, Larsson A, Ronnemaa E, Degerman-Gunnarsson M, et al. Systemic inflammation and the risk of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia: a prospective population-based study. J Alzheimers Dis. 2009;18(1):79–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Amore A, Coppo R. Immunological basis of inflammation in dialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2002;17(Suppl 8):16–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Jofré R, Rodriguez-Benitez P, López-Gómez JM, Pérez-Garcia R. Inflammatory syndrome in patients on hemodialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17(12 suppl 3):S274–S80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Rozas VV, Port FK, Easterling RE. An outbreak of dialysis dementia due to aluminum in the dialysate. J Dial. 1978;2(5–6):459–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Foundation NK. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for bone metabolism and disease in chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003;42:S1.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Farhoudi M, Abedi Azar S, Abdi R. Brain hemodynamics in patients with end-stage renal disease between hemodialysis sessions. Iran J Kidney Dis. 2012;6(2):110–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Hata R, Matsumoto M, Handa N, Terakawa H, Sugitani Y, Kamada T. Effects of hemodialysis on cerebral circulation evaluated by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Stroke. 1994;25(2):408–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Skinner H, Mackaness C, Bedforth N, Mahajan R. Cerebral haemodynamics in patients with chronic renal failure: effects of haemodialysis. Br J Anaesth. 2005;94(2):203–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Pereira AA, Weiner DE, Scott T, Sarnak MJ. Cognitive function in dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis. 2005;45(3):448–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Chiu YW, Teitelbaum I, Misra M, de Leon EM, Adzize T, Mehrotra R. Pill burden, adherence, hyperphosphatemia, and quality of life in maintenance dialysis patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;4(6):1089–96.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Ying I, Levitt Z, Jassal SV. Should an elderly patient with stage V CKD and dementia be started on dialysis? Clin J Am Soc Nephrol CJASN. 2014;9(5):971–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Amira O. Prevalence of symptoms of depression among patients with chronic kidney disease. Niger J Clin Pract. 2011;14(4):460–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Cohen SD, Norris L, Acquaviva K, Peterson RA, Kimmel PL. Screening, diagnosis, and treatment of depression in patients with end-stage renal disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;2(6):1332–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Hedayati SS, Minhajuddin AT, Toto RD, Morris DW, Rush AJ. Validation of depression screening scales in patients with CKD. Am J Kidney Dis Off J National Kidney Foundation. 2009;54(3):433–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Thomas C, Kreisel SH, Oster P, Driessen M, Arolt V, Inouye SK. Diagnosing delirium in hospitalized elderly patients with dementia: adapting the confusion assessment method to ICD-10 diagnostic criteria. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012;60(8):1471–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Inouye SK, van Dyck CH, Alessi CA, Balkin S, Siegal AP, Horwitz RI. Clarifying confusion: the confusion assessment method. A new method for detection of delirium. Ann Intern Med. 1990;113(12):941–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Fong TG, Tulebaev SR, Inouye SK. Delirium in elderly adults: diagnosis, prevention and treatment. Nat Rev Neurol. 2009;5(4):210–20.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR. “Mini-mental state”. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res. 1975;12(3):189–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Kurella M, Luan J, Yaffe K, Chertow GM. Validation of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life (KDQOL) cognitive function subscale. Kidney Int. 2004;66(6):​2361–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Godefroy O, Fickl A, Roussel M, Auribault C, Bugnicourt JM, Lamy C, et al. Is the Montreal Cognitive Assessment superior to the Mini-Mental State Examination to detect poststroke cognitive impairment? A study with neuropsychological evaluation. Stroke. 2011;42(6):1712–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Wilder D, Cross P, Chen J, Gurland B, Lantigua RA, Teresi J, et al. Operating characteristics of brief screens for dementia in a multicultural population. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1995;3(2):96–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Belle SH, Seaberg EC, Ganguli M, Ratcliff G, DeKosky S, Kuller LH. Effect of education and gender adjustment on the sensitivity and specificity of a cognitive screening battery for dementia: results from the MoVIES Project. Monongahela Valley Independent Elders Survey. Neuroepidemiology. 1996;15(6):321–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Fratiglioni L, Jorm AF, Grut M, Viitanen M, Holmen K, Ahlbom A, et al. Predicting dementia from the Mini-Mental State Examination in an elderly population: the role of education. J Clin Epidemiol. 1993;46(3):281–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Williams MA, Sklar AH, Burright RG, Donovick PJ. Temporal effects of dialysis on cognitive functioning in patients with ESRD. Am J Kidney Dis. 2004;43(4):705–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Tornatore JB, Hill E, Laboff JA, McGann ME. Self-administered screening for mild cognitive impairment: initial validation of a computerized test battery. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2005;17(1):​98–105.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Mogi M, Horiuchi M. Clinical interaction between brain and kidney in small vessel disease. Cardiol Res Prac. 2011;2011:306189.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Vogels SC, Emmelot-Vonk MH, Verhaar HJ, Koek HL. The association of chronic kidney disease with brain lesions on MRI or CT: a systematic review. Maturitas. 2012;71(4):331–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Moodalbail DG, Reiser KA, Detre JA, Schultz RT, Herrington JD, Davatzikos C, et al. Systematic review of structural and functional neuroimaging findings in children and adults with CKD. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol CJASN. 2013;8(8):1429–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    American Academy of Neurology guideline summary for clinicians: detection, diagnosis and management of dementia. 2013.
  142. 142.
    Albert M DC, DeKosky S, De Leon M, Foster NL, Fox N, et al. The use of MRI and PET for clinical diagnosis of dementia and investigation of cognitive impairment: a consensus report. [Last accessed on 3rd October 2016]. Available from: Neuroimaging Work Group of the Alzheimer’ Association; 2004.
  143. 143.
    Pannu N, Wiebe N, Tonelli M, Alberta Kidney Disease Network. Prophylaxis strategies for contrast-induced nephropathy. JAMA. 2006;295(23):2765–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Ad-hoc working group of ERBP, Fliser D, Laville M, Covic A, Fouque D, Vanholder R, et al. A European Renal Best Practice (ERBP) position statement on the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) clinical practice guidelines on acute kidney injury: part 1: definitions, conservative management and contrast-induced nephropathy. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012;27(12):4263–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Johnson KA, Fox NC, Sperling RA, Klunk WE. Brain imaging in Alzheimer disease. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2012;2(4):a006213.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Chen HJ, Zhang LJ, Lu GM. Multimodality MRI findings in patients with end-stage renal disease. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:12.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Le Bihan D, Mangin JF, Poupon C, Clark CA, Pappata S, Molko N, et al. Diffusion tensor imaging: concepts and applications. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2001;13(4):534–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Cowper SE, Robin HS, Steinberg SM, Su LD, Gupta S, LeBoit PE. Scleromyxoedema-like cutaneous diseases in renal-dialysis patients. Lancet. 2000;356(9234):​1000–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Kuo PH, Kanal E, Abu-Alfa AK, Cowper SE. Gadolinium-based MR contrast agents and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Radiology. 2007;242(3):​647–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Rodby RA. Dialytic therapies to prevent NSF following gadolinium exposure in high-risk patients. Semin Dial. 2008;21(2):145–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Zhang LJ, Wen J, Ni L, Zhong J, Liang X, Zheng G, et al. Predominant gray matter volume loss in patients with end-stage renal disease: a voxel-based morphometry study. Metab Brain Dis. 2013;28(4):​647–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Chen HJ, Zhang LJ, Lu GM. Multimodality MRI findings in patients with end-stage renal disease. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:697402.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Chai C, Zhang M, Long M, Chu Z, Wang T, Wang L, et al. Increased brain iron deposition is a risk factor for brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis: a combined study of quantitative susceptibility mapping and whole brain volume analysis. Metab Brain Dis. 2015;30(4):1009–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Fleisher AS, Sherzai A, Taylor C, Langbaum JB, Chen K, Buxton RB. Resting-state BOLD networks versus task-associated functional MRI for distinguishing Alzheimer’s disease risk groups. Neuroimage. 2009;47(4):1678–90.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Moretti R, Torre P, Antonello RM, Manganaro D, Vilotti C, Pizzolato G. Risk factors for vascular dementia: hypotension as a key point. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2008;4(2):395–402.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Erkinjuntti T. Clinical criteria for vascular dementia: the NINDS–AIREN criteria. Dementia. 1994;5(3–4):​189–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Cappa A, Calcagni ML, Villa G, Giordano A, Marra C, De Rossi G, et al. Brain perfusion abnormalities in Alzheimer’s disease: comparison between patients with focal temporal lobe dysfunction and patients with diffuse cognitive impairment. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2001;70(1):22–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Alexopoulos P, Sorg C, Forschler A, Grimmer T, Skokou M, Wohlschlager A, et al. Perfusion abnormalities in mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia in Alzheimer’s disease measured by pulsed arterial spin labeling MRI. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2012;262(1):69–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Roquet D, Sourty M, Botzung A, Armspach JP, Blanc F. Brain perfusion in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer’s disease: an arterial spin labeling MRI study on prodromal and mild dementia stages. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2016;8:29.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Kanai H, Hirakata H, Nakane H, Fujii K, Hirakata E, Ibayashi S, et al. Depressed cerebral oxygen metabolism in patients with chronic renal failure: a positron emission tomography study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001;38(4 Suppl 1):S129–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Duron E, Hanon O. Antihypertensive treatments, cognitive decline, and dementia. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;20(3):903–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Obisesan TO. Hypertension and cognitive function. Clin Geriatr Med. 2009;25(2):259–88.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Fried L. Albuminuria and cognitive impairment. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;7(3):376–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Disease KCPGftMoBPiCK. Chapter 3: blood pressure management in CKD ND patients without diabetes mellitus. Kidney Int. 2012;2(5):357–62.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Group TSR. A randomized trial of intensive versus standard blood-pressure control. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(22):2103–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Schreiber Jr MJ. Clinical case-based approach to understanding intradialytic hypotension. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001;38(4 Suppl 4):S37–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Sawada T, Yamada H, Dahlof B, Matsubara H, Group KHS. Effects of valsartan on morbidity and mortality in uncontrolled hypertensive patients with high cardiovascular risks: KYOTO HEART Study. Eur Heart J. 2009;30(20):2461–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Fuentes B, Fernandez-Dominguez J, Ortega-Casarrubios MA, SanJose B, Martinez-Sanchez P, Diez-Tejedor E. Treatment with angiotensin receptor blockers before stroke could exert a favourable effect in acute cerebral infarction. J Hypertens. 2010;28(3):​575–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Fournier A, Oprisiu-Fournier R, Serot J-M, Godefroy O, Achard J-M, Faure S, et al. Prevention of dementia by antihypertensive drugs: how AT1-receptor-blockers and dihydropyridines better prevent dementia in hypertensive patients than thiazides and ACE-inhibitors. Expert Rev Neurother. 2009;9(9):​1413–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Lovell MA, Abner E, Kryscio R, Xu L, Fister SX, Lynn BC. Calcium channel blockers, progression to dementia, and effects on amyloid beta peptide production. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2015;2015:9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Turnbull F, Woodward M, Neal B, Barzi F, Ninomiya T, Chalmers J, et al. Do men and women respond differently to blood pressure-lowering treatment? Results of prospectively designed overviews of randomized trials. Eur Heart J. 2008;29(21):2669–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    KDIGO. Clinical practice guideline for lipid management in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2013;3(3).Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Khella S, Bleicher MB. Stroke and its prevention in chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;2(6):1343–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Wattanakit K, Cushman M, Stehman-Breen C, Heckbert SR, Folsom AR. Chronic kidney disease increases risk for venous thromboembolism. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;19(1):135–40.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Reinecke H, Brand E, Mesters R, Schäbitz W-R, Fisher M, Pavenstädt H, et al. Dilemmas in the management of atrial fibrillation in chronic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20(4):705–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Saracyn M, Brodowska-Kania D, Niemczyk S. Oral anticoagulant therapy in patients receiving haemodialysis: is it time to abandon it? Scientific World Journal. 2013;2013:170576.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Ezekowitz MD, Bridgers SL, James KE, Carliner NH, Colling CL, Gornick CC, et al. Warfarin in the prevention of stroke associated with nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation. Veterans affairs stroke prevention in nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation investigators. N Engl J Med. 1992;327(20):1406–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Shah M, Avgil Tsadok M, Jackevicius CA, Essebag V, Eisenberg MJ, Rahme E, et al. Warfarin use and the risk for stroke and bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing dialysis. Circulation. 2014;129(11):1196–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Carrero J, Evans M, Szummer K, et al. WArfarin, kidney dysfunction, and outcomes following acute myocardial infarction in patients with atrial fibrillation. JAMA. 2014;311(9):919–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Wiesholzer M, Harm F, Tomasec G, Barbieri G, Putz D, Balcke P. Incidence of stroke among chronic hemodialysis patients with nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation. Am J Nephrol. 2001;21(1):35–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Clase CM, Holden RM, Sood MM, Rigatto C, Moist LM, Thomson BKA, et al. Should patients with advanced chronic kidney disease and atrial fibrillation receive chronic anticoagulation? Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012;27(10):3719–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    January CT, Wann LS, Alpert JS, Calkins H, Cigarroa JE, Cleveland JJC, et al. 2014 AHA/ACC/HRS guideline for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation: a Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;64(21):e1–e76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Herzog CA, Asinger RW, Berger AK, Charytan DM, Diez J, Hart RG, et al. Cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease. A clinical update from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Kidney Int. 2011;80(6):572–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Chan KE, Giugliano RP, Patel MR, Abramson S, Jardine M, Zhao S, et al. Nonvitamin K anticoagulant agents in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease or on dialysis with AF. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016;67(24):2888–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Masaki KH, Losonczy KG, Izmirlian G, Foley DJ, Ross GW, Petrovitch H, et al. Association of vitamin E and C supplement use with cognitive function and dementia in elderly men. Neurology. 2000;54(6):​1265–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Morris M, Evans DA, Bienias JL, Tangney CC, Wilson RS. Vitamin e and cognitive decline in older persons. Arch Neurol. 2002;59(7):1125–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Cote S, Carmichael PH, Verreault R, Lindsay J, Lefebvre J, Laurin D. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and the risk of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s Dement J Alzheimer’s Assoc. 2012;8(3):219–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Yip AG, Green RC, Huyck M, Cupples LA, Farrer LA. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and Alzheimer’s disease risk: the MIRAGE Study. BMC Geriatr. 2005;5(1):1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    McMahon JA, Green TJ, Skeaff CM, Knight RG, Mann JI, Williams SM. A controlled trial of homocysteine lowering and cognitive performance. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(26):2764–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Durga J, van Boxtel MPJ, Schouten EG, Kok FJ, Jolles J, Katan MB, et al. Effect of 3-year folic acid supplementation on cognitive function in older adults in the FACIT trial: a randomised, double blind, controlled trial. Lancet. 2007;369(9557):​208–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Brady CB, Gaziano JM, Cxypoliski RA, Guarino PD, Kaufman JS, Warren SR, et al. Homocysteine lowering and cognition in CKD: the Veterans Affairs homocysteine study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009;54(3):​440–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Troen AM, Scott TM, D’Anci KE, Moorthy D, Dobson B, Rogers G, et al. Cognitive dysfunction and depression in adult kidney transplant recipients: baseline findings from the FAVORIT Ancillary Cognitive Trial (FACT). J Ren Nutr. 2012;22(2):268–76.e1–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Kurella Tamura M, Vittinghoff E, Yang J, Go AS, Seliger SL, Kusek JW, et al. Anemia and risk for cognitive decline in chronic kidney disease. BMC Nephrol. 2016;17:13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Marsh JT, Brown WS, Wolcott D, Carr CR, Harper R, Schweitzer SV, et al. rHuEPO treatment improves brain and cognitive function of anemic dialysis patients. Kidney Int. 1991;39(1):155–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    KDOQI. KDOQI clinical practice guideline and clinical practice recommendations for anemia in chronic kidney disease: 2007 update of hemoglobin target. Am J Kidney Dis. 2007;50(3):471–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Locatelli F, Barany P, Covic A, De Francisco A, Del Vecchio L, Goldsmith D, et al. Kidney disease: improving global outcomes guidelines on anaemia management in chronic kidney disease: a European Renal Best Practice position statement. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2013;28(6):1346–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Shaffi K, Tighiouart H, Scott T, Lou K, Drew D, Weiner D, et al. Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and cognitive impairment in hemodialysis patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;8(6):979–86.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Liu GL, Pi HC, Hao L, Li DD, Wu YG, Dong J. Vitamin D status is an independent risk factor for global cognitive impairment in peritoneal dialysis patients. PLoS One. 2015;10(12):e0143782.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Jovanovich AJ, Chonchol M, Brady CB, Kaufman JD, Kendrick J, Cheung AK, et al. 25-vitamin D, 1,25-vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor-23 and cognitive function in men with advanced CKD: a veteran population. Clin Nephrol. 2014;82(5):S1–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Health NIo. Vitamin D supplementation on physical and cognitive function — Pilot Study.Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Harris S, Lamping D, Brown E, Constantinovici N. Clinical outcomes and quality of life in elderly patients on peritoneal dialysis versus hemodialysis. Perit Dial Int. 2002;22(4):463–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Mizumasa T, Hirakata H, Yoshimitsu T, Hirakata E, Kubo M, Kashiwagi M, et al. Dialysis-related hypotension as a cause of progressive frontal lobe atrophy in chronic hemodialysis patients: a 3-year prospective study. Nephron Clin Pract. 2004;97(1):c23–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Kurella Tamura M, Unruh ML, Nissenson AR, Larive B, Eggers PW, Gassman J, et al. Effect of more frequent hemodialysis on cognitive function in the frequent hemodialysis network trials. Am J Kidney Dis. 2013;61(2):228–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Murray AM, Pederson SL, Tupper DE, Hochhalter AK, Miller WA, Li Q, et al. Acute variation in cognitive function in hemodialysis patients: a cohort study with repeated measures. Am J Kidney Dis. 2007;50(2):270–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Jassal SV, Devins GM, Chan CT, Bozanovic R, Rourke S. Improvements in cognition in patients converting from thrice weekly hemodialysis to nocturnal hemodialysis: a longitudinal pilot study. Kidney Int. 2006;70(5):956–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Wolfgram DF, Szabo A, Murray AM, Whittle J. Risk of dementia in peritoneal dialysis patients compared with hemodialysis patients. Perit Dial Int J Int Soc Perit Dial. 2015;35(2):189–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    United States Renal Data System; USRDS. 2005 Annual data report: atlas of end-stage renal disease in the United States. Bethesda: MNIoH, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; 2005.Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Lin Y-T, Wu P-H, Kuo M-C, Chen C-S, Chiu Y-W, Yang Y-H, et al. Comparison of dementia risk between end stage renal disease patients with hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis — a population based study. Sci Rep. 2015;5:8224.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Radic J, Ljutic D, Radic M, Kovacic V, Sain M, Curkovic KD. The possible impact of dialysis modality on cognitive function in chronic dialysis patients. Neth J Med. 2010;68(4):153–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Harciarek M, Biedunkiewicz B, Lichodziejewska-Niemierko M, Debska-Slizien A, Rutkowski B. Cognitive performance before and after kidney transplantation: a prospective controlled study of adequately dialyzed patients with end-stage renal disease. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2009;15(5):​684–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Kaya Y, Ozturkeri OA, Benli US, Colak T. Evaluation of the cognitive functions in patients with chronic renal failure before and after renal transplantation. Acta Neurol Belg. 2013;113(2):147–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Griva K, Thompson D, Jayasena D, Davenport A, Harrison M, Newman SP. Cognitive functioning pre- to post-kidney transplantation — A prospective study. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2006;21(11):​3275–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Gelb S, Shapiro RJ, Hill A, Thornton WL. Cognitive outcome following kidney transplantation. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008;23(3):1032–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Van Sandwijk MS, Ten Berge IJ, Majoie CB, Caan MW, De Sonneville LM, Van Gool WA, et al. Cognitive changes in chronic kidney disease and after transplantation. Transplantation. 2016;100(4):734–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luis Augusto Juncos
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kiran Chandrashekar
    • 1
  • Luis Isaías Juncos
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Medicine/Division of NephrologyUniversity of Mississippi Medical CenterJacksonUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Physiology and BiophysicsUniversity of Mississippi Medical CenterJacksonUSA
  3. 3.Fundación J Robert CadeCórdobaArgentina

Personalised recommendations