Introduction to Mycorrhiza: Historical Development

  • Ram PrasadEmail author
  • Diksha Bhola
  • Khalid Akdi
  • Cristina Cruz
  • Sairam KVSS
  • Narendra Tuteja
  • Ajit Varma


Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are vital component of natural ecosystem, being gifted to form symbiont with plant roots. AM fungi have mutualistic relationships with more than 80% of terrestrial plant species. Because of wide range of relationships with host plants, it becomes difficult to identify the species on the morphological bases as the spores are to be extracted from the soil. In spite of their abundance and wide range of relationship with plant species, AMF have shown low species diversity. AMF have high functional diversity because different combinations of host plants and AMF have different effects on the numerous aspects of symbiosis. Recent fossil evidence has dated the appearance of arbuscular mycorrhizae back to 460 million years, preexisting vascular plants. These studies benefit the paleoecological importance of mycorrhizae and enhancement to our understanding of the evolution of mutualisms.


Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Land Plant Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Arbuscular Mycorrhizae Arum Type 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Ajit Varma is thankful to Department of Science and Technology and Department of Biotechnology for partial financial funding and to DST-FIST for providing confocal microscope facility.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ram Prasad
    • 1
    Email author
  • Diksha Bhola
    • 1
  • Khalid Akdi
    • 2
  • Cristina Cruz
    • 3
  • Sairam KVSS
    • 4
  • Narendra Tuteja
    • 1
  • Ajit Varma
    • 1
  1. 1.Amity Institute of Microbial Technology (AIMT)Amity University Uttar PradeshNoida, Gautam Buddha NagarIndia
  2. 2.AMC Chemical, Poligono Industrial La IslaDos Hermanas, SevillaSpain
  3. 3.Faculty of Sciences, Center for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes (Ce3C)Universidade de LisboaLisboaPortugal
  4. 4.Prathista Biotech LimitedSecundrabadIndia

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