Advertisement

Deciding to Be Mobile

  • Angeliki Dimitriadi
Chapter
Part of the Migration, Diasporas and Citizenship book series (MDC)

Abstract

Drawing from fieldwork conducted with Afghan irregular migrants and recognizing that migration is not only a result of “push” factors the chapter looks not only at the reasons for leaving home but also the aspirations shaping their movement and the choice of the final destination. The role of asylum and how it is understood is highlighted, using the Afghans as a case study while acknowledging it is not a unique feature of Afghan migration. The imperfect information that often motivate the journey and assist in the construction of a specific “imaginary” as regards future homelands link with the asylum defines to a large extent their mobility and particularly their journey to (and from) Greece.

References

  1. Ahmad, Ali Nobil. 2008. The romantic appeal of illegal migration: Gender, masculinity and human smuggling from Pakistn. In Illegal Migration and Gender in a Global and Historical Perspective, edited by M. Schrover, J. van der Leun, L. Lucassen and C. Quispel. Amsterdam: IMISCOE Research Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Alkire, Sabina. 2003. A conceptual framework for human security. Center for Research on Inequality, Human Security and Ethnicity (CRISE), University of Oxford.Google Scholar
  3. Anthias, Floya. 2007. Ethnic ties: Social capital and the question of mobilisability. The Sociological Review 55 (4):788–805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Appadurai, Arjun. 2004. The capacity to aspire: Culture and the terms of recognition. In Culture and Public Action, edited by R. Vijayendra and M. Walton. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Appadurai, Arjun. 1996. Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalisation, Public Worlds Series. University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  6. Bakewell, Oliver. 2010. Some reflections on structure and agency in migration theory. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 36 (10):1689–708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bathaïe, Azita. 2009. La Grèce, une étape cruciale dans le parcours migratoire des Afghans depuis la frontiére iranienne jusqu‘en Europe. Méditerranée 113:70–77.Google Scholar
  8. Bialczyk, Agata. 2008. Voluntary Repatriation’ and the Case of Afghanistan: A Critical Examination. Working Paper No. 46, Oxford: Refugee Studies Center.Google Scholar
  9. Borjas, George J. 1990. Friends or Strangers: The Impact of Immigrants on the U.S. Economy. New York: Basic Books, Inc.Google Scholar
  10. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1986. The forms of capital. In Handbook of Theory of Research for the Sociology of Education, edited by. J.E.Richardson. Westport: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  11. Boyd, Monica. 1989. Family and personal networks in International migration: Recent developments and new agendas. International Migration Review 23 (3):638–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carling, Jørgen. 2014. The role of aspirations in migration. Paper presented at Determinants of International Migration, International Migration Institute, Oxford: University of Oxford, 23–25 September.Google Scholar
  13. Castles, Stephen, Hein de Haas, and Mark Miller. 2014. The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World. 5th ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Czaika, Mathias, and Marc Vothknecht. 2014. Migration and aspirations—are migrants trapped on a hedonic treadmill? Journal of Migration 3 (1):1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dimitriadi, Angeliki. 2013. Migration from Afghanistan to third countries and Greece. IRMA Background Report. Athens: ELIAMEP.Google Scholar
  16. Dimitriadi, Angeliki. 2015. Europe Is Like a Door; You Go Through It to Get to Europe: Understanding Afghan Migration to Greece. IRMA Final Report. Athens: ELIAMEP.Google Scholar
  17. Dimitriadi, Angeliki. 2016. The interrelationship between trafficking and irregular migration. In Irregular Migration, Trafficking and Smuggling of Human Beings: Policy Dilemmas in the EU, edited by S. Carrera and E. Guild. Brussels: CEPS.Google Scholar
  18. Dimitriadi, Angeliki. 2017. In pursuit of asylum: Afghan migrants in Greece. European Journal of Migration and Law 19 (1):57–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Donini, Antonio, Alessandro Monsutti, and Giulia Scalettaris. 2016. Afghans on the Move: Seeking Protection and Refuge in Europe “In this journey I died several times; In Afghanistan you only die once”. The Global Migration Research Paper Serie. Geneva: Global Migration Centre.Google Scholar
  20. Edwards, David Busby. 1986. Marginality and migration: Cultural dimensions of the Afghan refugee problem. International Migration Review 20 (2):313–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Faist, Thomas. 2000. The Volume and Dynamics of International Migration and Transnational Spocial Spaces. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fischer, Carolin. 2015. Disaggregating diasporas as actors. In Diasporas Reimagined: Spaces, Practices and Belonging, edited by N. Sigona, A. Gamlen, G. Liberatore and H. N. Kringelbach. Oxford: Oxford Diasporas Program.Google Scholar
  23. Foucault, Michel. 1991. Governmentality. In The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality, edited by G. Burchell, C. Gordon and P. Miller. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  24. Gardner, Katy. 1993. Desh-Bidesh: Sylheti Images of Home and Away. Man (New Series) 28 (1):1–15.Google Scholar
  25. Gordillo, Gaston. 2006. The crucible of citizenship: ID-paper fetishism in the Agentinean Chaco. American Ethnologist 33 (2):162–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. de Haas, Hein 2011. The determinants of international migration: Conceptualising policy, origin and destination effects. Working Papers. Oxford: International Migration Institute (IMI).Google Scholar
  27. van Hear, Nicholas. 2004. I went as far as my money would take me: Conflict, forced migration and class. Working Paper No. 6. Oxford: Center on Migration Policy and Society, University of Oxford.Google Scholar
  28. Hyndman, Jennifer. 2012. Geopolitics of Migration and Mobility. Geopolitics 17 (2):243–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. İçduygu, Ahmet, and Sule Toktas. 2002. How Do Smuggling and Trafficking Operate via Irregular Border Crossings in the Middle East? International Migration 40 (6):25–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kaytaz, Esra Stephanie. 2016. Afghan journeys to Turkey: Narratives of immobility, travel and transformation. Geopolitics 21 (2): 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Khosravi, Shahram. 2007. The “illegal” traveller: an auto-ethnography of borders. Social Anthropology/Anthropologie Sociale 15 (3):321–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Koepke, Bruce. 2011. The situation of Afghans in the Islamic Republic of Iran nine years after the overthrow of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan. Middle East Institute.Google Scholar
  33. Koser, Sebnem Akcapar. 2009. Re-thinking migrants’ networks and social capital: A case study of Iranians in Turkey. International Migration 48 (2):161–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kronenfeld, Daniel A. 2008. Afghan Refugees in Pakistan: Not all refugees, not always in Pakistan, not necessarily Afghan? Journal of Refugee Studies 21 (1):43–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lee, Everett. 1966. A theory of migration. Demography 3 (1):47–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mai, Nick. 2004. “Looking for a More Modern Life…”: The role of Italian television in the Albanian migration to Italy. Westminster Papers in Communication and Culture 1 (1):3–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mainwaring, Ċetta, and Noelle Brigden. 2016. Beyond the border: Clandestine migration journeys. Geopolitics 21 (2):243–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Massey, S. Douglas, Joaquin Arango, Graeme Hugo, Ali Kouaouci, Adela Pellegrino, and Taylor J. Edward. 1993. Theories of international migration: A review and appraisal. Population and Development Review 19 (3):431–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Massey, S. Douglas. 1999. International migration at the dawn of the Twenty-First Century: The role of the state. Population and Development Review 25 (2):303–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Massey, S. Douglas, Joacquin Arango, Graeme Hugo, Kouaouci Ali, Pellegrino Adela, and Taylor J. Edward. 2009. Worlds in Motion: Understanding International Migration at the End of the Millennium, International Studies in Demography. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Monsutti, Alessandro. 2006. Afghan Transnational Networks: Looking Beyond Repatriation. Kabul: Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit.Google Scholar
  42. Monsutti, Alessandro. 2007. Migration as a rite of passage: Young Afghans building masculinity and adulthood in Iran. Iranian Studies 40 (2).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Monsutti, Alessandro. 2008. Afghan Migratory Strategies and the Three Solutions to the Refugee Problem. Refugee Survey Quarterly 27:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Olszewska, Zuzanna. 2007. “A Desolate Voice”: Poetry and Identity Among Young Afghan Refugees in Iran Iranian Studies 40 (2):203–224.Google Scholar
  45. Portes, Alejandro. 1998. Social capital: its origins and applications in modern sociology. Annual Reviews of Sociology 24:1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Portes, Alejandro. 2000. The two meanings of social capital. Sociological Forum 15 (1):1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Saito, Mamiko. 2009. Searching for My Homeland, Dilemmas Between Borders: Experiences of Young Afghans Returning “Home” from Pakistan and Iran. Kabul: Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit.Google Scholar
  48. Salt, John, and Jeremy Stein. 1997. Migration as a business: The case of trafficking. International Migration 35:467–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Salter, Mark B. 2004. Passports, mobility, and security: How smart can the border be. International Studies Perspectives 5:71–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sassen, Saskia. 1998. Globalization and Its Discontents. Essays on the New Mobility of People and Money. New York: New York Press.Google Scholar
  51. Schuster, Lisa, and Nassim Majidi. 2013. What happens post-deportation? The experience of deported Afghans. Migration Studies 1 (2):221–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Shelley, Louise. 2010. Human Trafficking: A Global Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Stanzel, Angela. 2016. Eternally displaced: Afghanistan’s refugee crisis and what it means for Europe. Policy Brief. Berlin: European Council on Foreign Relations.Google Scholar
  54. Stark, Oded, and Taylor J. Edward. 1991. Migration incentives, migration types: The role of relative deprivation. The Economic Journal 101 (408):1163–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Timmerman, Christiane, Petra Heyse, and Christof van Mol. 2010. Europe seen from the outside: Conceptual and theoretical framework. Strangeness and Familiarity. University of Groningen: FORUM.Google Scholar
  56. Tinti, Peter, and Tuesday Reitano. 2016. Migrant, Refugee Smuggler, Saviour. C. Hurst & Co Publishers.Google Scholar
  57. Turton, David, and Peter Marsden. 2002. Taking refugees for a ride? the politics of refugee return to Afghanistan. Issues paper series, Kabul: Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit.Google Scholar
  58. Vertovec, Steven. 2003. Migration and other modes of transnationalism: Towards conceptual cross-fertilization. International Migration Review 37 (3):641–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Übelmesser, Silke, Wido Geis, and Martin Werding. 2008. How Do Migrants Choose Their Destination Country? An Analysis of Institutional Determinants. Issue 2506 of CESifo working paper series, CESifo GmbH München.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angeliki Dimitriadi
    • 1
  1. 1.ELIAMEPAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations