2D/3D Transperineal and 3D Endovaginal Imaging of the Posterior Compartment

  • Andrea C. Santiago
  • S. Abbas Shobeiri


Ultrasound imaging has made it possible to clearly visualize the anatomy and to understand the functionality of the female pelvic floor. In this chapter, we will focus on the use of 2D/3D transperineal and 3D endovaginal ultrasound imaging in the assessment of the posterior compartment. Normal anatomy, ultrasound techniques, and equipment will be briefly reviewed. A detailed discussion of specific posterior compartment disorders, like rectocele, enterocele, intussusception, and pelvic floor dyssynergy, is included. Certain 3D endovaginal ultrasound findings that may help to explain the presence of obstructed defecation symptoms in a subset of patients with no gross abnormality on physical examination will also be discussed. The use of 3D endovaginal imaging to identify and characterize the presence of mesh in the posterior compartment will be covered as well.


Posterior compartment Anorectum Intussusception Rectocele Enterocele 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Urogynecology, Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyUniversity of Toronto-Mount Sinai HospitalTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyGynecologic Subspecialties, INOVA Women’s Hospital, Virginia Commonwealth UniversityFalls ChurchUSA
  3. 3.Department of BioengineeringGeorge Mason UniversityFairfaxUSA

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