3D Endovaginal Ultrasound Imaging of Pelvic Floor Trauma

  • Kim W. M. Van Delft
  • Ghazaleh Rostaminia
  • S. Abbas Shobeiri


The complex levator ani anatomy is perhaps best visualized with three-dimensional endovaginal ultrasonography. In this chapter we will address the occurrence of levator ani muscle injury during childbirth, and investigate the role of pelvic ultrasound to identify and quantify the amount of birth-related levator ani muscle trauma.


Pelvic floor trauma Levator ani trauma Endovaginal ultrasound 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kim W. M. Van Delft
    • 1
  • Ghazaleh Rostaminia
    • 2
  • S. Abbas Shobeiri
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyRadboud University Nijmegen Medical CentreNijmegenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyINOVA Women’s Hospital, Virginia Commonwealth UniversityFalls ChurchUSA
  3. 3.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyGynecologic Subspecialties, INOVA Women’s Hospital, Virginia Commonwealth UniversityFalls ChurchUSA
  4. 4.Department of BioengineeringGeorge Mason UniversityFairfaxUSA

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