Perineal Pelvic Floor Ultrasound: Applications and Literature Review



This chapter reviews pelvic floor ultrasound literature pertaining to the perineal approach (placing a curved array probe at the vaginal opening). Perineal ultrasound of the pelvic floor can be conducted in either 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional mode offering high quality static imaging. By adding time as the fourth dimension, dynamic images of the functional anatomy can be obtained allowing for a multi-compartmental approach. Following description of the equipment and techniques required for conducting perineal pelvic floor ultrasonography effectively, this chapter offers an insight into the different applications of this modality for evaluating pelvic floor dysfunction, including levator ani muscle defects, pelvic floor muscle dysfunction, urethral pathology, vaginal and urethral mesh/implants, pelvic organ prolapse, urinary incontinence, and obstetric anal sphincter tears.


Pelvic floor Perineal ultrasound Levator ani muscle injury Urinary incontinence Pelvic organ prolapse Urethral mobility Mid-urethral slings Urethral bulking agents Vaginal mesh/implants Anal sphincter muscle injury 


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Urogynecology, Royal Victoria InfirmaryThe Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation TrustNewcastle upon TyneUK
  2. 2.Department of UroGynecologySt Mary’s Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS TrustLondonUK

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