Advertisement

Distraction of the Cranial Vault

  • Jordan W. Swanson
  • Jesse A. TaylorEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Building on the early clinical use of distraction osteogenesis by Codivilla and Ilizarov for orthopedic limb deformities [1, 2], and its maxillofacial application by McCarthy for lengthening the mandible [3], distraction was first applied to the cranial vault in 1997 by Do Amaral and colleagues who reported their experience distracting the fronto-orbital region in seven elementary school-aged children with Apert or Crouzon syndrome, with satisfactory results [4]. The following year, Lauritzen described two cases in which cranial springs were used to achieve gradual and effective expansion of the posterior vault and a monobloc segment, respectively [5]. In 1998, Hirabayashi reported the first distraction-mediated fronto-orbital advancement (FOA) in an infant with Apert syndrome [6]. In 2002, Imai and associates described refinement of a cranial distraction protocol in 20 patients with syndromic and nonsyndromic craniosynostosis [7].

Keywords

Distraction Osteogenesis Cranial Vault Apert Syndrome Distraction Device Crouzon Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Codivilla A. On the means of lengthening, in the lower limbs, the muscles and tissues which are shortened through deformity. Am J Orthop Surg. 1905;2:353–69.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ilizarov GA. The tension-stress effect on the genesis and growth of tissues. Part I. The influence of stability of fixation and soft tissue preservation. Clin Orthop. 1989;238:249–81.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    McCarthy JG, Schreiber J, Karp N, et al. Lengthening the human mandible by gradual distraction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1992;89:1–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    do Amaral CM, Di Domizio G, Tiziani V, Galhardi F, Buzzo CL, Rinco T, Kharmandayan P, Bueno MA, Bolzani N, Sabbatini RM, Lopes LD, Lopes PF, Paiva B, Paiva RM, Turchiari LA. Gradual bone distraction in craniosynostosis. Preliminary results in seven cases. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg. 1997;31(1):25–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lauritzen C, Sugawara Y, Kocabalkan O, Olsson R. Spring mediated dynamic craniofacial reshaping. Case report. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg. 1998;32(3):331–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hirabayashi S, Sugawara Y, Sakurai A, Harii K, Park S. Frontoorbital advancement by gradual distraction. J Neurosurg. 1998;89:1058–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Imai K, Komune H, Toda C, Nomachi T, Enoki E, Sakamoto H, Kitano S, Hatoko M, Fujimoto T. Cranial remodeling to treat craniosynostosis by gradual distraction using a new device. J Neurosurg. 2002;96(4):654–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wall SA, Goldin JH, Hockley AD, et al. Fronto-orbital re-operation in craniosynostosis. Br J Plast Surg. 1994;47:180–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Whitaker LA, Bartlett SP, Schut L, et al. Craniosynostosis: an analysis of the timing, treatment, and complications in 164 consecutive patients. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1987;80:195–206.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    McCarthy JG, Glasberg SB, Cutting CB, et al. Twenty-year experience with early surgery for craniosynostosis: II. The craniofacial synostosis syndromes and pansynostosis—results and unsolved problems. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1995;96:284–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Williams JK, Cohen SR, Burstein FD, et al. A longitudinal, statistical study of reoperation rates in craniosynostosis. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1997;100:305–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    McCarthy JG, editor. Distraction of the craniofacial skeleton. New York: Springer; 1999.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Derderian CA, Wink JD, McGrath JL, Collinsworth A, Bartlett SP, Taylor JA. Volumetric changes in cranial vault expansion: comparison of fronto-orbital advancement and posterior cranial vault distraction osteogenesis. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2015;135:1665–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Swanson JW, Samra F, Bauder A, Mitchell BT, Taylor JA, Bartlett SP. An algorithm for managing syndromic craniosynostosis utilizing posterior vault distraction osteogenesis. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016;137(5):829e–41e.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Steinbacher DM, Skirpan J, Puchala J, Bartlett SP. Expansion of the posterior cranial vault using distraction osteogenesis. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;127:792–801.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tahiri Y, Swanson JW, Taylor JA. Distraction osteogenesis versus conventional fronto-orbital advancement for the treatment of unilateral coronal synostosis: a comparison of peri-operative morbidity and short-term outcomes. J Craniofac Surg. 2015;26:1904–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wall SA, Thomas GP, Johnson D, et al. The preoperative incidence of raised intracranial pressure in nonsyndromic sagittal craniosynostosis is underestimated in the literature. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2014;14:674–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Renier D, Sainte-Rose C, Marchac D, Hirsch JF. Intracranial pressure in craniostenosis. J Neurosurg. 1982;57:370–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Speltz ML, Collett BR, Wallace ER, et al. Intellectual and academic functioning of school-age children with single-suture craniosynostosis. Pediatrics. 2015;135:e615–23.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hashim PW, Patel A, Yang JF, et al. The effects of whole-vault cranioplasty versus strip craniectomy on long-term neuropsychological outcomes in sagittal craniosynostosis. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2014;134:491–501.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Spruijt B, Joosten KF, Driessen C, et al. Algorithm for the management of intracranial hypertension in children with syndromic craniosynostosis. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2015;136(2):331–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cohen SR, Holmes RE, Amis P, Fichtner H. Internal craniofacial distraction with biodegradable devices: early stabilization and protected bone regeneration. J Craniofac Surg. 2000;11:354–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lauritzen CG, Sugawara Y, Kocabalkan O, et al. Spring mediated dynamic craniofacial reshaping. Case report. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg. 1998;32(3):331–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lauritzen CG, Davis C, Ivarsson A, et al. The evolving role of springs in craniofacial surgery: the first 100 clinical cases. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;121:545–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Paley D. PRECICE intramedullary limb lengthening system. Expert Rev Med Devices. 2015;12(3):231–49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cheung KM, Cheung JP, Samartzis D, Mak KC, Wong YW, Cheung WY, Akbarnia BA, Luk KD. Magnetically controlled growing rods for severe spinal curvature in young children: a prospective case series. Lancet. 2012;379(9830):1967–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rinehart G, Forget T, Zografakis J, Manepalli AN, Pittman T. Cranial vault expansion using transcutaneously activated magnetic implants. Pediatr Neurosurg. 1998;28(6):293–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Baird C, Fewings P, Manepalli A, Pittman T, Rinehart G. Cranial vault expansion: a comparison of magnetic coupled distraction to traditional surgical repositioning. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2000;33(1):2–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Goldstein JA, Paliga JT, Wink JD, et al. A craniometric analysis of posterior cranial vault distraction osteogenesis. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013;131:1367.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nowinski D, Di Rocco F, Renier D, et al. Posterior cranial vault expansion in the treatment of craniosynostosis. Comparison of current techniques. Childs Nerv Syst. 2012;28:1537–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Derderian CA, Bastidas N, Bartlett SP. Posterior cranial vault expansion using distraction osteogenesis. Childs Nerv Syst. 2012;28:1551–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ylikontiola LP, Sándor GK, Salokorpi N, Serlo WS. Experience with craniosynostosis treatment using posterior cranial vault distraction osteogenesis. Ann Maxillofac Surg. 2012;2(1):4–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Serlo WS, Ylikontiola LP, Lähdesluoma N, et al. Posterior cranial vault distraction osteogenesis in craniosynostosis: estimated increases in intracranial volume. Childs Nerv Syst. 2011;27:627–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Thomas GP, Wall SA, Jayamohan J, et al. Lessons learned in posterior cranial vault distraction. J Craniofac Surg. 2014;25:1721–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wiberg A, Magdum S, Richards PG, et al. Posterior calvarial distraction in craniosynostosis—an evolving technique. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2012;40:799–806.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Maurice SM, Gachiani JM. Posterior cranial vault distraction with resorbable distraction devices. J Craniofac Surg. 2014;25:1249–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Taylor JA, Derderian CA, Bartlett SP, Fiadjoe JE, Sussman EA, Stricker PA. Perioperative morbidity in posterior cranial vault expansion: distraction osteogenesis versus conventional osteotomy. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2012;129:674e–80e.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hopper RA. New trends in cranio-orbital and midface distraction for craniofacial dysostoses. Curr Opin Otolaryngol. 2012;20:298–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fearon JA. Evidence-based medicine: craniosynostosis. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2014;133:1261–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fearon JA, Podner C. Apert syndrome: evaluation of a treatment algorithm. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013;131:132–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Samra F, Swanson JW, Mitchell BT, Bauder AR, Taylor JA, Bartlett SP. Posterior vault distraction conveys anterior benefit in Apert syndrome. Boston: American Society of Plastic Surgeons; 2015.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fearon JA. Chapter 35: Syndromic craniosynostosis. In: Neligan PC, editor. Plastic surgery, vol. 3: craniofacial, head and neck surgery, and pediatric plastic surgery. 3rd ed. London: Elsevier; 2013.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Francis PM, Beals S, Rekate HL, et al. Chronic tonsillar herniation and Crouzon’s syndrome. Pediatr Neurosurg. 1992;18:202–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Levitt MR, Niazi TN, Hopper RA, et al. Resolution of syndromic craniosynos tosis-associated Chiari malformation type I without suboccipital decompression after posterior cranial vault release. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2012;9:111–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Crocker M, Nesbitt A, Rich P, Bell B. Symptomatic venous sinus thrombosis following bone wax application to emissary veins. Br J Neurosurg. 2008;22:798–800.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Komuro Y, Hashizume K, Koizumi T, et al. Cranial expansion with distraction osteogenesis for multiple-suture synostosis in school-aged children. J Craniofac Surg. 2009;20:457–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Komuro Y, Shimizu A, Ueda A, et al. Whole cranial vault expansion by continual occipital and fronto-orbital distraction in syndromic craniosynosto- sis. J Craniofac Surg. 2011;22:269–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Choi JW, Ra YS, Hong SH, Kim H, Shin HW, Chung IW, et al. Use of distraction osteogenesis to change endocranial morphology in unilateral coronal craniosynostosis patients. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;126:995–1004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Steinbacher DM, Wink J, Bartlett SP. Temporal hollowing following surgical correction of unicoronal synostosis. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;128:231–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Taylor JA, Paliga JT, Wes A, et al. A critical evaluation of long-term aesthetic outcomes of fronto-orbital advancement and cranial vault remodeling in the treatment of non-syndromic unicoronal craniosynostosis. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2015;135:220–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Samra F, Paliga JT, Tahiri Y, et al. The prevalence of strabismus in unilateral coronal synostosis. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2014;134(suppl 1):19–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Choi JW, Koh KS, Hong JP, Hong SH, Ra Y. One-piece frontoorbital advancement with distraction but without a supraorbital bar for coronal craniosynostosis. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2009;62:1166–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Taylor JA, Tahiri Y, Paliga JT, et al. A new approach for the treatment of unilateral coronal synostosis based on distraction osteogenesis. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2014;134:176e–8e.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Selber JM, Reid RR, Chike-Obi CJ, et al. The changing epidemiologic spectrum of single-suture synostoses. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;122:527–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Jarrahy R, Kawamoto HK, KEagle J, Dickinson B, Katchikian HV, Bradley JP. Three tenets for staged correction of Kleeblattschädel or cloverleaf skull deformity. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;123:310–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Mitchell BT, Swanson JW, Taylor JA. A new single-stage, distraction-mediated cranial vault expansion technique for the multisuture deformity. J Craniofac Surg. 2015;26(6):1923–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Tuncbilek G, Kaykcoglu A, Bozkurt G, Akalan N. Spring-mediated cranioplasty in patients with multiple-suture synostosis and cloverleaf skull deformity. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23:374–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Meling TR, Høgevold H-E, Due-Tønnessen BJ, Skjelbred P. Comparison of perioperative morbidity after LeFort III and monobloc distraction osteogenesis. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;49:131–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Nout E, Wolvius EB, van Adrichem LNA, Ongkosuwito EM, van der Wal KGH. Complications in maxillary distraction using the RED II device: a retrospective analysis of 21 patients. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;35:897–902.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Greives MR, Ware BW, Tian AG, Taylor JA, Pollack IF, Losee JE. Complications in posterior cranial vault distraction. Ann Plast Surg. 2016;76(2):211–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    White N, Evans M, Dover MS, Noons P, Solanki G, Nishikawa H. Posterior calvarial vault expansion using distraction osteogenesis. Childs Nerv Syst. 2009;25(2):231–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Plastic SurgeryUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.McGregor Integral Cleft and Plastic Surgery ProgramManaguaNicaragua
  3. 3.The Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, The Children’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations