Distraction of the Cranial Vault

  • Jordan W. Swanson
  • Jesse A. TaylorEmail author


Building on the early clinical use of distraction osteogenesis by Codivilla and Ilizarov for orthopedic limb deformities [1, 2], and its maxillofacial application by McCarthy for lengthening the mandible [3], distraction was first applied to the cranial vault in 1997 by Do Amaral and colleagues who reported their experience distracting the fronto-orbital region in seven elementary school-aged children with Apert or Crouzon syndrome, with satisfactory results [4]. The following year, Lauritzen described two cases in which cranial springs were used to achieve gradual and effective expansion of the posterior vault and a monobloc segment, respectively [5]. In 1998, Hirabayashi reported the first distraction-mediated fronto-orbital advancement (FOA) in an infant with Apert syndrome [6]. In 2002, Imai and associates described refinement of a cranial distraction protocol in 20 patients with syndromic and nonsyndromic craniosynostosis [7].


Distraction Osteogenesis Cranial Vault Apert Syndrome Distraction Device Crouzon Syndrome 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Plastic SurgeryUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.McGregor Integral Cleft and Plastic Surgery ProgramManaguaNicaragua
  3. 3.The Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, The Children’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA

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