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Nutrition Support of Patients with Cirrhosis

Chapter

Abstract

Malnutrition is prevalent among individuals with cirrhosis and has adverse effects on patient outcomes. Prompt attention to assessment of nutrition status to determine cause and degree of malnutrition is the first step in implementing a nutrition plan. Nutrition status can be assessed using a combination of parameters although Subjective Global Assessment is most commonly utilized. CT and MRI scans can also be used to quantify muscle and fat stores but are not frequently used in a clinical setting. Cirrhosis can cause metabolic aberrations affecting the metabolism, storage, and utilization of protein, carbohydrate, and fat. Electrolyte abnormalities and micronutrient deficiencies can ensue and may require supplementation or restriction. Because oral intake is frequently inadequate, nutrition support may be required with enteral nutrition as the preferred option. This chapter provides recommendations for nutrient needs and delivery in patients with cirrhosis considering the symptoms and complications of liver disease.

Keywords

Cirrhosis Liver disease Malnutrition Nutrition assessment Nutrition status Enteral nutrition Nutrition support 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Annette C. and Harold C. Simmons Transplant InstituteBaylor University Medical CenterDallasUSA
  2. 2.Department of Internal MedicineTexas A&M College of MedicineBryanUSA
  3. 3.Simmons Transplant Institute, Baylor All Saints Medical CenterFort WorthUSA

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