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Lessons for the Future of the Bologna Process and the Internationalization of Higher Education

  • Beverly BarrettEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The progress of the case-study countries, Portugal and Spain, toward change in higher education provide important lessons for policy reforms at the national level. Domestic political attributes that incentivize reforms are supportive leadership at the national and institutional levels, dedicated funding, and governmental structure. The case-study research identified that the National Qualifications Framework (NQF) for the degree structure in the EHEA was established in 2007 both in Portugal and in Spain. The three explanatory variables—economic pressures from globalization, domestic politics from intergovernmentalism, and ideational processes from the EU supranational governance through Europeanization—have promoted international policy coordination and institutional change in higher education in the region of Europe. The EHEA model has influenced other world regions to adopt similar policy reforms in higher education. The ties of Portugal and Spain with countries in Ibero-America come from their shared cultural and historical experiences.

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© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of HoustonHoustonUSA

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