Integrative Approaches to Orofacial Pain: Role of Biofeedback and Hypnosis

  • Gabriel TanEmail author
  • Alan Glaros
  • Richard Sherman
  • Chin Yi Wong


  • EMG biofeedback procedures in which patients are shown their levels of masticatory muscle tension and taught to recognize and then control tension levels is a highly effective way to treat muscle tension-based orofacial pain.

  • Biofeedback-based interventions are at least as effective as traditional dental and medical therapeutic approaches for muscle related pain and may last indefinitely.

  • Biofeedback for recognizing and then controlling sustained levels of jaw muscle tension works best when patients learn the skills thoroughly and then continue to practice them.

  • Patients will probably benefit most by consulting with well-skilled and appropriately credentialed biofeedback providers [21].

  • Hypnosis and hypnotherapy could also contribute to management of the orofacial pain by adding the elements of altering pain perception and experience, and improving motivation to respond to treatment.

  • Acquisition and maintenance of a low level generalized relaxation state is counter to the experience of TMD pain.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabriel Tan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alan Glaros
    • 2
  • Richard Sherman
    • 3
  • Chin Yi Wong
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.University of Missouri-Kansas CityKansas CityUSA
  3. 3.Psychophysiology ProgramSaybrook UniversityOaklandUSA

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