Temporomandibular Joint Disorders

  • Jeffrey P. OkesonEmail author
  • Cristina Perez
  • James R. Fricton


  • Temporomandibular joint functional disorders are classified into derangements of the condyle-disc complex, structural incompatibility of the articular surfaces, and inflammatory joint disorders.

  • Clinical signs and symptoms may range from non-painful signs of joint noises to acute and chronic pain and dysfunction.

  • These conditions are prevalent; nevertheless, only some require treatment.

  • Diagnostic criteria are described in the AAOP guidelines [1] and diagnostic criteria for TMD [2].

  • The clinician should always match the level of complexity of the management program with the complexity of the patient. In complex patients, the use of a pain clinic team to facilitate success is often needed.

  • Employing clinical paradigms of self-care, education, and self-responsibility in the patient’s care will enhance long-term outcomes and maintain positive relationships between the patient and the clinician.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey P. Okeson
    • 1
    Email author
  • Cristina Perez
    • 2
  • James R. Fricton
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Orofacial PainUniversity of Kentucky College of DentistryLexingtonUK
  2. 2.Division of Pediatric DentistryUniversity of Kentucky College of DentistryLexingtonUK
  3. 3.Division of TMD and Orofacial PainUniversity of Minnesota School of DentistryMinneapolisUSA

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