Train Protection Systems in Different Railway Gauges

  • Lionginas LiudvinavičiusEmail author
  • Aleksander Sładkowski
Part of the Studies in Systems, Decision and Control book series (SSDC, volume 87)


This chapter analyzes the train traffic control systems for 1435- and 1520-mm railway gauges, as well as their compatibility issues. The British Rail Traffic control system is analyzed. European train control systems (ETCS) and ETCS levels are described. Differences between European train control systems in 1435- and 1520-mm railway gauges related technical problems and proposed solutions are presented with regard to ETCS implementation in the Baltic states. The existing train control systems do not meet requirements of traffic safety in light of increased train speeds.


Train protection system Interlocking Track circuit Moving block Balises Train speed Axles counters Global positioning system (GPS) 


  1. 1.
    Divis DA (2002) Military role for Galileo emerges. GPS World 13(5):10Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Johnson C (2004) U.S., EU to Sign Landmark GPS-Galileo Agreement. Available at:
  3. 3.
    Hein GW, Godet J, Issler J-L, Martin J-C, Erhard Ph, Lucas-Rodriguez R, Pratt T (2002) Status of Galileo frequency and signal design. In: Proceedings of ION GPS. Available at:
  4. 4.
    Salmi P, Torkkeli M (2009) Inventions utilizing satellite navigation systems in the railway industry—an analysis of patenting activity. J Technol Manag Innov 4(3):46–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rajkumar RI, Sankaranarayanan PE, Sundari G (2013, Sept) GPS and Ethernet based real time train tracking system. In: Proceedings of 2013 international conference on advanced electronic systems (ICAES) pp 282–286. Available at:
  6. 6.
    Psiaki ML (2001) Block acquisition of weak GPS signals in a software receiver. In: Proceedings of ION GPS 2001, the 14th international technical meeting of the satellite division of the institute of navigation, Salt Lake City, Utah, pp 2838–2850Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    The Galilei Project. Galileo Design Consolidation (2003) European Commission. Available at:
  8. 8.
    Van Der Jagt CW (2002) Galileo: the declaration of European Independence: a dissertation. American Graduate School of International Relations and Diplomacy‬Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    The GSM-R Frequency Workshop (2009) UIC eNews. No. 143. Available at:
  10. 10.
    Technologies—GSM-R (2012) Willtek. Available at:
  11. 11.
    GSM-R Technology (2011) GSM-R Industry Group. Available at:,
  12. 12.
    Implementation planning and progress (2007) GSM-R. Available at:,
  13. 13.
    Digital Train Radio System (2013) PTV Corporate. Government of Victoria. Available at:,
  14. 14.
    Connor P (2013) A job for life: changes seen in a 50-year career on London Underground 1916–1966. Available at:
  15. 15.
    Connor P, Harris NG, Schmid F (eds) (2015) Designing and managing urban railways London: A & N HarrisGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Connor P (2015) London underground electric train. Crowood Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Theeg G, Vlasenko S (eds) (2009) Railway signalling & interlocking—international compendium. EurailpressGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Suwe KH (1988) Signaltechnik in Japan. Signal + Draht 80(12) pp 284–288Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lingaitis LP, Liudvinavičius L, Butkevicius J, Podagėlis I, Sakalauskas K, Vaičiūnas G, Bureika G, Gailienė I, Petrenko V, Subačius R (2009) Geležinkeliai. Bendrasis kursas: vadovėlis. Vilnius: Technika [In Lithuanian: Railways. General Course: text book]Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bianchi C (1985) Die Fuhrerraumsignalisierung auf der Direttissima Rom-Florenz. Signal + Draht 77(1/2) pp 9–16Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yamanouchi S (1979) Safety and ATC of Shinkansen. In: Japanese railway engineeringGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Directive 96/48/EC99 of 23 July 1996 amending Council Directive 96/48/EC on the interoperability of the trans-European high-speed rail system and DirectiveGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
  24. 24.
    2001/16/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the interoperability of the trans-European conventional rail systemGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Liudvinavičius L, Lingaitis LP, Dailydka S (2010) Traukos riedmenų elektros pavaros ir jų valdymas: bendrasis aukštųjų mokyklų vadovėlis. Vilnius: Technika. [In Lithuanian: Traction rolling stock power drives and their control: common high school text book]Google Scholar
  26. 26.
  27. 27.
    ETCS “Eurobalise” transceiver, installed between rails, provides information to ETCS trains. Available at:
  28. 28.
    Croco + TBL + ETCS balises at the same signal. Available at:
  29. 29.
    EBICAB balise in the Mediterranean Corridor. Available at:
  30. 30.
  31. 31.
    Rail Traffic Management and Signaling. Available at:
  32. 32.
    Recommendation on ERTMS delivered to European Commission. European Railway Agency. Available at:
  33. 33.
    Commission decision on the technical specification for interoperability relating to the control-command and signalling subsystems of the trans-European rail system. 2012-01-25. 2012/88/EUGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Commission decision amending Decision 2012/88/EU on the technical specifications for interoperability relating to the control-command and signalling subsystems of the trans-European rail system. 11/6/2012. 2012/696/EUGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    System Requirements Specification (SUBSET-026). European Railway Agency. Available at:
  36. 36.
    ERTMS Levels. Available at:
  37. 37.
  38. 38.
  39. 39.
    Railway technical web pages. Railway systems, technologies and operations across the world. Available at:
  40. 40.
  41. 41.
    Colburn R (2013). A history of railroad signals. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Tech FocusGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sapozhnikov VV, Kokurin IM, Kononov VA, Lykov AA, Nikitin AB (2006) Operational bases of automation and telemechanics. Moscow: Marshrut Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Voronin VS (2009) Intelligent transport management systems. Railway transport, No. 3 pp. 140–143Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    BNSF Railway Company (2005) General Code of operating rules, 5th ednGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Calvert JB (1999) Centralized traffic control. Available at:
  46. 46.
    Brian FW (2006). Railroad’s traffic control systems. Trains. Available at:
  47. 47.
    Lundsten CS (2000, Oct) North American Signaling: Absolute Permissive Block. Available at:
  48. 48.
    Liudvinavičius L (2012) Investigation of locomotives electrodynamic braking. Doctoral dissertation. Vilnius: Technika. ISBN 978-609-457-333-0Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bandemer B, Denks H, Hornbostel A, Konovaltsev A, Ribeiro Coutinho P (2005) Performance of acquisition methods for Galileo SW receivers. Eur J Navig 4(3):17–29Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mendizabal Samper J, Berenguer Pérez R, Meléndez Lagunilla J (2009) GPS & Galileo: dual RF front-end receiver and design, fabrication, and test. McGraw Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-159870-5Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mendizabal J, Berenguer R, Melendez J (2009) GPS and Galileo. McGraw Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-159869-9Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ishchenko VA (2009) Organization of communication on low-density lines. Rail transportGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lionginas Liudvinavičius
    • 1
    Email author
  • Aleksander Sładkowski
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Railway TransportVilnius Gediminas Technical UniversityVilniusLithuania
  2. 2.Faculty of Transport, Department of Logistics and Industrial TransportationSilesian University of TechnologyKatowicePoland

Personalised recommendations