Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) in Challenging Environments

  • C. ChristopoulosEmail author
Part of the Springer Optimization and Its Applications book series (SOIA, volume 113)


The paper describes the essential aspects of ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC) as applied to the response of critical systems to severe ElectroMagnetic (EM) threats. The significance of deterministic and stochastic models is outlined together with the role of numerical modelling and physical testing in the analysis and synthesis of complex systems. It is emphasised that the exploitation of the synergies between modelling and testing is the best way to approach the EM design of complex systems.


Electromagnetic interference Electromagnetic compatibility Electromagnetic hardening of systems 


  1. 1.
    C. Christopoulos, Principles and Techniques of Electromagnetic Compatibility, 2nd edn. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2007)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    TEMPEST, spying on information systems through leaking emanations, including unintentional radio or electrical signal. https://en.wikipedia/wiki/Tempest_(codename). Accessed 29 July 2015
  3. 3.
    W. van Eck, Electromagnetic radiation from video display units: an eavesdropping risk? Comput. Secur. 4, 269–286 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    C.R. Paul, Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility, 2nd edn. (Wiley, New Jersey, 2006)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J.A. Rosero et al., Moving towards a more electric aircraft. IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag. 22 (3), 3–9 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    C. Champion, Towards more electric aircraft. Skyline Clean Sky Newsl. 6, 4–5 (2012)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Department of Defence, Washington DC, Requirements for the Control of Electromagnetic Emissions and Susceptibility. MIL-STD 461D (1993)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ministry of Defence, Glasgow, UK, Electromagnetic Compatibility. DEF-STAN 59–41 (1988)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    F.M. Tesche, M.V. Ianoz, T. Karlsson, EMC Analysis Methods and Computational Models (Wiley, New York, 1997)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    F. Leferink, Conducted interference, challenges and interference cases. IEEE EMC Mag. 4 (1), 78–85 (2015)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    D.V. Giri, F.M. Tesche, Classification of intentional electromagnetic environments. IEEE Trans. EMC 46 (3), 322–328 (2004)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    EM Environmental Effects Requirements for Systems. MIL-STD-464 (1997)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    C.L. Longmire, On the electromagnetic pulse produced by nuclear explosions. IEEE Trans. EMC 29, 3–13 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    R.L. Gardner et al., Comparison of lightning and public domain HEMP waveforms on the surface of an aircraft, in 6th International Zurich Symposium on EMC, pp. 175–180 (1985)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    D.V. Giri, High-power Electromagnetic Radiators: No-lethal Weapons and Other Applications (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 2004)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    W.A. Radasky et al., Introduction to the special issue on high-power electromagnetics (HPEM) and intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI). IEEE Trans. EMC 46 (3), 314–321 (2004)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    O.-H. Arnesen, R. Hoad, Overview of the European project ‘HIPOW’. IEEE EMC Mag. 3 (4), 64–67 (2014)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Van de Beek et al., Overview of the European project STRUCTURES. IEEE EMC Mag. 3 (4),70–79 (2014)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    V. Deniau, Overview of the European project security of railways in Europe against EM attacks (SECRET). IEEE EMC Mag. 3 (4), 80–85 (2014)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    K.S.H. Lee (ed.), Interaction Notes: Principles, Techniques and Reference Data. Report AFWL-TR-80-402 (1980)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    J.-M. Redoute, A. Richelli, A methodological approach to EMI resistant analog integrated design. IEEE EMC Mag. 4 (2), 66–74 (2015)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    F. Fiori, EMI susceptibility: the Achilles’ heel of smart power ICs. IEEE EMC Mag. 4 (2), 75–79 (2015)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    C. Christopoulos, The Transmission-Line Modeling Method TLM (IEEE Press, New York, 1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    M.P. Robinson et al., Shielding effectiveness of a rectangular enclosure. Electron Lett. 32 (19), 1559–1560 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M.P. Robinson et al., Analytical formulation of the shielding effectiveness of enclosures with apertures. IEEE Trans. EMC 40 (3), 240–248 (1998)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    D.W.P. Thomas et al., Characterization of the shielding effectiveness of loaded equipment cabinets, in IET Conf Publ, EMC York, 99, pp. 89–94 (1999)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    C. Christopoulos, Modeling and simulation for EMC-part I. IEEE EMC Mag. 4 (1), 47–56 (2015)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    C. Christopoulos, Modeling and simulation for EMC-part II. IEEE EMC Mag. 4 (2), 63–72 (2015)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    L. De Menezes et al., Efficient computation of stochastic electromagnetic problems using unscented transforms. IET Sci. Meas. Technol. 2 (2), 88–95 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    D.W.P. Thomas et al., Estimation of the probability distributions for cable coupling using unscented transforms. Ann. Telecommun. 66, 475–482 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    I. Lee et al., Dimension reduction method for reliability-based robust design optimization. Comput. Struct. 86 (13–14), 1550–1562 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    L. De Menezes, D.W.P. Thomas, C. Christopoulos, Statistics of the shielding effectiveness of cabinets, in Proceedings of the ESA Workshop on Aerospace EMC, Florence, Italy, 6 p. (2009)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of NottinghamNottinghamUK

Personalised recommendations