Region-Based Watermarking for Images

  • Konstantinos A. RaftopoulosEmail author
  • Nikolaos Papadakis
  • Klimis S. Ntalianis
  • Paraskevi Tzouveli
  • Georgios Goudelis
  • Stefanos D. Kollias
Part of the Springer Optimization and Its Applications book series (SOIA, volume 113)


Plain rotation, scaling, and/or translation (RST) of an image can lead to loss of watermark synchronization and thus authentication failure with standard techniques. The block-based approaches in particular, albeit strong against frequency and cropping attacks, are sensitive to geometric distortions due to the need for repositioning the blocks’ rectangular grid of reference. In this paper, we propose a block-based approach for watermarking image objects in a way that is invariant to RST distortions. With the term image object we refer to semantically contiguous parts of images that have a specific contour boundary. The proposed approach is based on shape information since the watermark is embedded in image blocks, the location and orientation of which are defined by Eulerian tours that are appropriately arranged in layers, around the object’s robust skeleton. The object’s robust skeleton is derived by its boundary after applying an extraction technique and not only is invariant to RST transformations but also to cropping, clipping, and other common deformation attacks, difficult to defend with current methods. Experiments using standard benchmark datasets demonstrate the advantages of the proposed scheme in comparison to alternative state-of-the-art methods.


Image watermarking Intellectual property protection Invariant watermarking Region-based watermarking 

AMS Subject Classification Numbers:

65D18 68U10 94A08 68P25 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Konstantinos A. Raftopoulos
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Nikolaos Papadakis
    • 3
  • Klimis S. Ntalianis
    • 4
  • Paraskevi Tzouveli
    • 1
  • Georgios Goudelis
    • 1
  • Stefanos D. Kollias
    • 1
  1. 1.National Technical University of AthensZografouGreece
  2. 2.The American College of GreeceAgia ParaskeviGreece
  3. 3.Hellenic Military AcademyVari AttikisGreece
  4. 4.Technical Educational Institute of AthensEgaleoGreece

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