Advertisement

Police as Public Health Interventionists

  • Nicole L AsquithEmail author
  • Isabelle Bartkowiak-Théron
Chapter

Abstract

Practice collaboration between policing and health practitioners is now commonplace, including the growth of mental health intervention teams in policing organisations. In this chapter, we extend the work already developed by scholars aligned with the Law Enforcement and Public Health conference, and consider the practice implications of moving upstream and away from a reliance upon downstream crisis intervention. In this shift, we suggest that the concept of vulnerability may assist policing organisations to reconceptualise some of their work as public health intervention.

Keywords

Intimate Partner Violence Sexual Assault Police Officer Public Safety Vulnerable People 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Anderson, S. & Burris, E. 2016, Policing and public health: Not quite the right analogy, Policing & Society, 27(3), pp. 300–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arey, J. B., Wilder, A. H., Normore, A. H., Iannazzo, M. D., & Javidi, M. 2015, Crisis intervention teams: An evolution of leadership in community and policing, Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 10(2), pp. 143–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asquith, N. L., Bartkowiak-Théron, I., & Roberts, K. A. 2016, Vulnerability and the criminal justice system, Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, 2(3), pp. 1–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bartkowiak-Théron, I. 2011, Partnership policing for police organisations, in P. Birch & V. Herrington (eds), Policing in practice. South Yarra: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 180–204.Google Scholar
  5. Bartkowiak-Théron, I., & Asquith, N. L. 2015, Policing diversity and vulnerability in the post-Macpherson era: Unintended consequences and missed opportunities, Policing: A Journal of Policy & Practice, 9(1), pp. 89–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bartkowiak-Théron, I., & Asquith, N. L. 2016, Practice synergies and conceptual divides in law enforcement and public health: Some lessons from policing vulnerability in Australia, Policing & Society, 27(3), pp. 276–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bartkowiak-Théron, I., & Layton, C. 2012, Educating for vulnerability, in I. Bartkowiak-Théron & N. L. Asquith (eds), Policing vulnerability. Annandale, NSW: Federation Press, pp. 47–64.Google Scholar
  8. Bartkowiak-Theron, I., Julian, R., Kelty, S. F., & Howes, L. 2014, First interim evaluation report: Interagency support teams. Hobart: Tasmanian Institute of Law Enforcement Studies.Google Scholar
  9. Barwon Centre against Sexual Assault 2016a, Multidisciplinary centre (MDC). Available from http://barwoncasa.org/multi-disciplinary-centre (accessed 27 August 2016).
  10. Barwon Centre against Sexual Assault 2016b, Sexually abusive behaviours treatment service (SABTS). Available from http://barwoncasa.org/secondary-schools (accessed 27 August 2016).
  11. Barwon Centre against Sexual Assault 2016c, Secondary schools: Sexual assault prevention program for secondary schools (SAPPSS). Available from http://barwoncasa.org/secondary-schools (accessed 27 August 2016).
  12. Bittner, E. 1967, The police on skid-row: A study of peace keeping, American Sociological Review, 32(5), pp. 699–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brennan, I. R., Green, S., & Sturgeon-Adams, L. 2016, Early diversion and empowerment policing: Evaluating an adult female offender triage project, Policing & Society, Advanced access: doi:  10.1080/10439463.2016.1187607. Google Scholar
  14. Brogden, M., & Ellison, G. 2013, Policing in an age of austerity: A postcolonial perspective. London & New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Bullock, K., & Leeney, D. 2013, Participation, ‘responsivity’ and accountability in neighbourhood policing, Criminology & Criminal Justice, 13(2), pp. 199–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Burris, S., Wagenaar, A. C., Swanson, J., Ibrahim, J. K., Wood, J. D., & Mello, M. M. 2010, Making the case for laws that improve health: A framework for public health law research, The Milbank Quarterly, 88(2), pp. 169–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Canadian Public Health Association 2016, The social determinants of health. Available from http://www.cpha.ca/en/programs/social-determinants/frontlinehealth/sdh.aspx (accessed 26 August 2016).
  18. Carroll, P. E. 2002, The medical police and the history of public health, Medical History, 46(4), pp. 461–494.Google Scholar
  19. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention 2014, The social-ecological model: A framework for violence prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/overview/social-ecologicalmodel.html (accessed 18 August 2016).
  20. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention 2015, The ecological model. Available from http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/crccp/sem.htm (accessed 14 August 2016).
  21. Davis, C. S. S., Ruiz, S., Glynn, P., Picariello, G., & Walley, A. Y. 2014, Expanded access to naloxone among firefighters, police officers, and emergency medical technicians in Massachusetts, American Journal of Public Health, 104(8), pp. e7–e9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Frieden, T. R. 2010, A framework for public health action: The health impact pyramid, American Journal of Public Health, 100(4), pp. 590–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Herrington, V. 2012, Inter-agency cooperation and joined-up working in police responses to persons with a mental illness: Lessons from New South Wales, Policing: A Journal of Policy & Practice, 6(4), pp. 388–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hillyard, P., Pantazis, C., Tombs, S., & Gordon, D. 2008, ‘Social harm’ and its limits?, in D. Dorling, D. Gordon, P. Hillyard, C. Pantazis, S. Pemberton, & S. Tombs (eds), Criminal obsessions: Why harm matters more than crime. London: Centre for Crime and Justice Studies, King’s College London, pp. 62–69.Google Scholar
  25. Hu, R., Sun, I. Y., & Wu, Y. 2015, Chinese trust in the police: The impact of political efficacy and participation, Social Science Quarterly, 96(4), pp. 1012–1026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Innes, M. 2010, A ‘mirror’ and a ‘motor’: Researching and reforming policing in an age of austerity, Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 4(2), pp. 127–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kelly, M. P., Morgan, A., Bonnefoy, J., Butt, J., Bergman, V. et al. 2007, The social determinants of health: Developing an evidence base for political action. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  28. Li, X. 1996, License to coerce: Violence against women, state responsibility, and legal failures in China’s family-planning program, Yale Journal of Law and Feminism, 8(1), pp.145–191.Google Scholar
  29. Lilley, D. 2014, The weed and seed program: A nationwide analysis of crime outcomes, Criminal Justice Policy Review, 26(5), pp. 423–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Loader, I. 2016, In search of civic policing: Recasting the ‘Peelian’ principles, Criminal Law and Philosophy, 10(3), pp. 427–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Luna, F. 2009, Elucidating the concept of vulnerability: Layers not labels, International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics, 2(1), pp. 121–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Maher, L., & Dixon, D. 1999, Policing and public health: Law enforcement and harm minimization in a street-level drug market, British Journal of Criminology, 39(4), pp. 488–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Millie, A. 2013, The policing task and the expansion (and contraction) of British policing, Criminology & Criminal Justice, 13(2), pp. 143–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Millie, A., & Bullock, K. 2013, Policing in a time of contraction and constraint: Re-imagining the role and function of contemporary policing, Criminology & Criminal Justice, 13(2), pp. 133–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Millie, A., & Herrington, V. 2014, How wide or narrow should the police’s remit be?, Public Safety Leadership Research Focus, 2(4), pp. 1–10.Google Scholar
  36. Morabito, M. S., Kerr, A. N., Watson, A., Draine, J., Ottato, V., & Angell, B. 2012, Crisis intervention teams and people with mental illness: Exploring the factors that influence the use of force, Crime and Delinquency, 58(1), pp. 57–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. New South Wales Department of Family & Community Services 2012, Housing pathways: Framework for no wrong door protocol. Sydney: NSW Government.Google Scholar
  38. Normore, A. H., Ellis, B., & Bone, D. H. 2015, The defragmentation of mental health services, police and the homeless, Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 10(2), pp. 134–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Paterson, C., & Best, D. 2015, Policing vulnerability through building community connections, Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 10(2), pp. 150–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Penman-Aguilar, A., Talih, M., Huang, D., Moonesinghe, R., Bouye, K., & Beckles, G. 2016, Measurement of health disparities, health inequities, and social determinants of health to support the advance of health equity, Journal of Public health Management and Practice, 22(Suppl 1), pp. s33–s42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing 2015, Final report of the president’s task force on 21st century policing. Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.Google Scholar
  42. Proctor, R. N. 1988, Racial hygiene: Medicine under the Nazis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Ratcliffe, J. H. 2015, Harm-focussed policing, Ideas in American Policing, 19, pp. 1–12.Google Scholar
  44. Stark, M. M., & Payne-James, J. J. 2014, Provision of clinical forensic medical services in Australia: A qualitative survey 2011/12, Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 21 (January), pp. 31–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Success Works Pty Ltd 2011, Sexual assault reform strategy: Final evaluation report. Melbourne: Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  46. Thatcher, D. 2001, Policing is not a treatment: Alternatives to the medical model of research, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 38(4), pp. 387–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tilley, N., & Laycock, G. 2016, Engineering a safer society, Public Safety Leadership Research Focus, 4(2), pp. 1–6.Google Scholar
  48. Victor, E., & Guidry-Grimes, L. 2012, Vulnerabilities compounded by social institutions, International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics, 5(2), pp. 126–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Visentin, L. 2015 (5 July), If you are a woman looking for a bed tonight, you are on a wild goose chase, Sydney Morning Herald. Available from http://www.smh.com.au/nsw/domestic-violence-centres-full-workers-scared-to-criticise-government-20150703-gi4j58.html (accessed 27 August 2016).
  50. Watson, A. C., Morabito, M. S., Draine, J., & Ottati, V. 2008, Improving police response to persons with mental illness: A multi-level conceptualization of CIT, International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 31(4), pp. 359–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wilkinson, R., & Marmot, M. (eds). 2003, The Social Determinants of Health (2e). Geneva: World Health Organisation.Google Scholar
  52. Wood, J., & Beierschmitt, L. 2014, Beyond police crisis intervention: Moving ‘upstream’ to manage cases and places of behavioral health vulnerability, International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 37(5), pp. 439–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wood, J. D., Taylor, C. J., Groff, E. R., & Ratcliffe, J. H. 2015, Aligning policing and public health promotion: Insights from the world of foot patrol, Police Practice and Research: An International Journal, 16(3), pp. 211–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. World Health Organization 1948, Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization as Adopted by the International Health Conference, New York, 19–22 June 1946. Entered into force on 7 April 1948.Google Scholar
  55. World Health Organization 1957, Annual Report of the Director-General to the World Health Assembly and to the United Nations. Available from http://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/85693#sthash.DaNgaS76.dpuf (accessed 26 August 2016).
  56. World Health Organization 1986, The Ottawa charter for health promotion. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
  57. World Health Organization 1997, The Jakarta declaration on leading health promotion into the 21st century. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
  58. World Health Organization 2002, The world health report 2002: Reducing risks, promoting healthy life. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
  59. World Health Organization 2005, The Bangkok charter for health promotion in a globalized world. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
  60. World Health Organization 2011, Rio political declaration on social determinants of health. Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
  61. World Health Organization 2016a, The Public Health Approach. Available from http://www.who.int/violenceprevention/approach/public_health/en/ (accessed 26 August 2016).
  62. World Health Organization 2016b, The Ecological Model. Available from http://www.who.int/violenceprevention/approach/ecology/en/ (accessed 14 August 2016).

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicole L Asquith
    • 1
    Email author
  • Isabelle Bartkowiak-Théron
    • 2
  1. 1.Policing and Criminal JusticeWestern Sydney UniversityPenrith, NSWAustralia
  2. 2.Tasmanian Institute of Law Enforcement StudiesUniversity of TasmaniaHobart, TasmaniaAustralia

Personalised recommendations