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To guide the empirical studies to be conducted, the present chapter derives the theoretical framework. It aims at clarifying the conceptual components that are used throughout the remainder of this research. Therefore, the first section of this chapter begins with the elucidation of the most necessary conceptual components. First, the concept of consumer co-creation for innovation is presented and defined. Second, healthcare consumers are introduced as a construct and it is stated that healthcare consumers may serve as promising input factor for consumer co-creation. Third, it is argued that knowledge is an important determinant of innovation and the knowledge-based theory of the firm is introduced. Fourth, the concept of innovation intermediary is presented which provides the essential foundation to view an organization running a health-related online platform as an innovation intermediary if it is set up in this way. In the second section of this chapter, all components are consolidated to form the theoretical framework.