Advertisement

Seismic and Sonic Applications on Artifacts and Historical Buildings

  • Giovanni LeucciEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Geotechnologies and the Environment book series (GEOTECH, volume 16)

Abstract

Historic buildings, no matter whether they are famous monuments or so-called “minor,” or even vernacular, architecture, represent an important part of our cultural heritage. This patrimony, which is the living memory of the country history and development, must be preserved as much as possible as an historic document of our past. Unfortunately, wars and dramatic events (earthquakes, floods, slides, fires, etc.), but also abandonment and lack of maintenance, are constant menaces to the cultural heritage in every country of the world.

Difficulties exist when is necessary to evaluate the degree of the degradation process inside the heritage buildings. The degradation processes affect many structural levels (cracks, fissures, detachments, displacements…) as much as the aesthetic values (dirt, crusts, efflorescence…) of the historical buildings. The knowledge of this reality is important for the valuation of its stability conditions and also for a restoration planning environment. The main pathologies that can result in the breakdown of historical buildings are humidity damage caused by capillarity ascent, breeze, or high humidity environments, successive freeze–thaw cycles that result in crystallization, broken mortar joints, and loss of the most exposed material, and finally erosion damage caused by lack of vegetation. Centering on structural pathologies (cracks, fissures), the detection and characterization of the aforementioned problems are important to estimate the status and to plan the possible repair.

This chapter describes the possible applications of a nondestructive testing (NDT) method related to the study of the propagation of sonic and ultrasonic waves to analyze the conservation state of heritage buildings. Some tests for masonry investigations and the conditions for applicability are here reported, providing necessary information and decision criteria for the planned application of the methods to historic masonry buildings. The chapter comprises a short summary of the basic technical principles of the method and describes the required equipment, measurement setup, application, and relevant limits and site conditions, data analysis and interpretation, and the required safety cautions.

Keywords

Travel Time Body Wave Pulse Velocity Masonry Wall Fresnel Zone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abad R, García G, Abad R, Blanco R, Conesa M, Marco B, Lladró C (2007) Non-destructive assessment of a buried rainwater cistern at the Carthusian Monastery Vall de Crist (Spain, 14th century) derived by microgravimetric 2D modeling. J Cultur Heritage 8:197–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abu-Zeid N, Santarato G (2006) Non-invasive imaging of ancient foundations status in venice (italy) using the electrical resistivity tomography technique. heritage, weathering and conservation – fort Alvarez de Buergo eds Gomez-Heras and Vasquez-Calvo. Taylor and Francis Group. London. ISBN 0-415-41272-2Google Scholar
  3. Abu Zeid N, Balducci M, Bartocci F, Regni R, Santarato G (2010) Indirect estimation of injected mortar volume in historical walls using the electrical resistivity tomography. J Cultur Heritage 11:220–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bavusi M, Loperte A, Soldovieri F (2012) A low cost ERT prototype in the Cultural Heritage monitoring. Geophys Res Abstr 14:EGU2012–EG10064Google Scholar
  5. Binda L, Saisia A, Tiraboschi C, Valle S, Colla C, Forde M (2003a) Application of sonic and radar tests on the piers and walls of the Cathedral of Noto Constr. Build Mater 17:613–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Binda L, Saisi A, Zanzi L (2003b) Sonic tomography and flat jack tests as complementary investigation procedures for the stone pillars of the temple of S.Nicolo’ L’Arena (Italy). NDT&E Int 36:215–227Google Scholar
  7. Calia A., Leucci G., Masini N., Persico R., Quarta G. (2010) Integration of in situ NDT tests with petro-physical analyses for the characterization of materials and constructive techniques of ancient masonries Geophys Res Abstr 12:EGU2010–12963, 2010, EGU General Assembly 2010Google Scholar
  8. Calia A, Sileo M, Leucci G (2012) The assessment of ultrasonic tests as a tool for qualification and diagnostic study of traditional highly porous and soft stone materials used in the built heritage of the past. EGU General Assembly 14:EGU2012–9860Google Scholar
  9. Calia A, Lettieri M, Leucci G, Matera L, Persico R, Sileo M (2013) The mosaic of the crypt of St. Nicholas in Bari (Italy): integrated GPR and laboratory diagnostic study. J Archaeol Sci 40:4162–4169. doi: 10.1016/j.jas.2013.06.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cheeke JDN (2002) Foundamental and applications of ultrasonic waves. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, p 462Google Scholar
  11. Cosentino PL, Capizzi P, Martorana R, Messina P, Schiavone S (2011) From geophysics to microgeophysics for engineering and cultural heritage. Int J Geophys 2011:Article ID 428412 8Google Scholar
  12. Cosentino PL, Capizzi P, Fiandaca G, Martorana R, Messina P (2009) Advances in micro geophysics for engineering and cultural heritage. J Earth Sci 20:626–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. El-Gohary MA (2013) Evaluation of treated and un-treated Nubia Sandstone using ultrasonic as a non-destructive technique. J. Archaeol. Sci. 40:2190–2195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Epperson GS, Abrams DP (1989) Non destructive evaluation of masonry buildings. Advanced Construction Technology Center, Doc. N. 89-26-03, Urbana Illinois, October 1989, 208 ppGoogle Scholar
  15. Fais S, Ligas P, Palomba M and Tocco R (2002) Evaluation of preservation state of monumental buildings by ND acoustic techniques and mineralogical Studies. In: Proceedings of the 5th international symposium on protection and conservation of the cultural heritage of the Mediterranean cities, pp 307–314Google Scholar
  16. Kearey P., Brooks M., Hill I (2002) An introduction to geophysical exploration. Blackwell Science Ltd, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  17. Leucci G, De Giorgi L (2006) Experimental studies on the effects of fracture on the p and s wave velocity propagation in sedimentary rock (“calcarenite del salento”). Eng Geol 84:130–142. doi: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2005.12.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Leucci G, Masini N, Persico R, Soldovieri F (2011) GPR and sonic tomography for structural restoration: the case of the Cathedral of Tricarico. J Geophys Eng 8:76–92. doi: 10.1088/1742-2132/8/3/S08 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Leucci G, De Giorgi L (2015) 2D AND 3D seismic measurements to evaluate the collapse risk of cave in soft carbonate rock. Central Eur J Geosci. doi: 10.1515/geo-2015-0006 Google Scholar
  20. Lualdi M, Zanzi L (2004) 2D and 3D experiments to explore the potential benefit of GPR investigations in planning the mining activity of a limestone quarry. In: Proceedings of the 10th international conferences on Ground Penetrating Radar GPR 2004 June 21–24 Delft 613–616Google Scholar
  21. Martinho E., Dionísio A (2014) Main geophysical techniques used for non-destructive evaluation in cultural built heritage: a review. J Geophys Eng 11(2014):053001 (15 pp)Google Scholar
  22. Reynolds JM (2011) An introduction to applied and environmental geophysics. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  23. Valle S, Zanzi L, Binda L, Saisi A Lenzi G (1998) Tomography for NDT applied to masonry structures: sonic and/or EM methods Arch Bridges ed A Sinopoli (Rotterdam: Balkema) pp 243–252Google Scholar
  24. Vasanelli E, A Calia, MA Aiello, M Sileo, G Leucci (2012) Mechanical DT and NDT: characterisation of building stones and research of correlation for in situ analysis of ancient masonries. EGU General Assembly 14:EGU2012–10333Google Scholar
  25. Vasanelli E, M Sileo, G Leucci, A Calia, MA Aiello, F Micelli (2015) Mechanical characterization of building stones through DT and NDT tests: research of correlations for the in situ analysis of ancient masonry. Key Eng Mater 628:85–89. Online available since 2014/Aug/28 at www.scientific.net Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.628.85
  26. Vasconcelos G, Lourenço PB, Alves CAS, Pamplona J (2008) Ultrasonic evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of granites. Ultrasonics 48:453–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Yasar E, Erdogan Y (2004) Correlating sound velocity with the density, compressive strength and Young’s modulus of carbonate rocks. Int J Rock Mech Mining Sci 41:871–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali (IBAM) – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR)LecceItaly

Personalised recommendations