FF-XRF, XRD, and PIXE for the Nondestructive Investigation of Archaeological Pigments

  • Francesco Paolo RomanoEmail author
  • Lighea Pappalardo
  • Giacomo Biondi
  • Claudia Caliri
  • Nicola Masini
  • Francesca Rizzo
  • Hellen Cristine Santos
Part of the Geotechnologies and the Environment book series (GEOTECH, volume 16)


This chapter discusses the integration of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), full-field X-ray fluorescence (FF-XRF), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the analysis of archaeological pigments. It summarizes the research activity performed for developing these innovative, custom-built, and portable instruments. A novel analytical protocol has been developed by combining these techniques with the aim of performing an in situ quantitative characterization of painted materials. The potentiality of using this approach is demonstrated for manganese black used in archaeological pottery manufactured over time by different cultures.


Cultural heritage Pigments FF-XRD PIXE XRD 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francesco Paolo Romano
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lighea Pappalardo
    • 1
  • Giacomo Biondi
    • 1
  • Claudia Caliri
    • 3
  • Nicola Masini
    • 2
  • Francesca Rizzo
    • 3
  • Hellen Cristine Santos
    • 3
  1. 1.IBAM-CNRCataniaItaly
  2. 2.CNR-IBAM Institute for Archaeological and Monumental HeritageTito ScaloItaly
  3. 3.LNS-INFNCataniaItaly

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