Performance Evaluation of Peer-to-Peer Structured Overlays over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Having Low Dynamism

  • Anurag SewakEmail author
  • Mayank Pandey
  • Manoj Madhava Gore
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10026)


To exploit the synergy between Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) and structured Peer-to-Peer (P2P) overlays, three different approaches, namely cross-layered, integrated, and layered have been proposed for their integration. In the cross-layered approach, information from the lower layers is made available at the application layer or vice versa. The integrated approach implements peer-to-peer routing algorithms at the network layer or MAC layer, whereas the layered approach utilizes application layer virtual links to construct P2P overlay on top of the MANET routing layer. It has been observed that cross-layered approach and integrated approach perform relatively better in situations where both node mobility and churn rate are high, but these approaches require changes in the lower layers of the protocol stack. On the other hand, the layered approach does not require any change in the protocol stack at lower levels, thus facilitating easy implementation. However, under highly dynamic scenarios this approach fails to achieve satisfactory performance. This paper targets to analyze the performance of layered approach under low dynamism. We have evaluated the performance of two topologically different structured overlays utilizing the layered approach in scenarios where, mobility of nodes is minimal, churn rate is low and network size is limited. The performance evaluation has been done using different network sizes, mobility speeds and lifetimes of nodes. Further, the frequency of execution of overlay maintenance procedures is also varied according to the dynamics of the MANET. The simulation results are gathered and compared with respect to packet delivery ratio, latency and maintenance overhead. The results obtained establish the applicability of layered approach for implementation of structured overlays over MANETs having low dynamism.


P2P Structured overlay MANET Mobility Churn Dynamism 


  1. 1.
    Abid, S., Othman, M., Shah, N., Ali, M., Khan, A.: 3D-RP: a DHT-based routing protocol for MANETs. Comput. J. 58(2), 258–279 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abid, S.A., Othman, M., Shah, N.: A survey on DHT-based routing for large-scale mobile ad hoc networks. ACM Comput. Surv. 47(2), 20:1–20:46 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baumgart, I., Heep, B., Krause, S.: OverSim: a flexible overlay network simulation framework. In: Proceedings of 10th IEEE Global Internet Symposium (GI 2007) in Conjunction with IEEE INFOCOM 2007, Anchorage, AK, USA, pp. 79–84, May 2007Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Benter, M., Divband, M., Kniesburges, S., Koutsopoulos, A., Graffi, K.: Ca-Re-Chord: a churn resistant self-stabilizing chord overlay network. In: 2013 Conference on Networked Systems (NetSys), pp. 27–34, March 2013Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Binzenhöfer, A., Leibnitz, K.: Estimating churn in structured P2P networks. In: Mason, L., Drwiega, T., Yan, J. (eds.) ITC 2007. LNCS, vol. 4516, pp. 630–641. Springer, Heidelberg (2007). doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-72990-7_56 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Burresi, S., Canali, C., Renda, M., Santi, P.: Meshchord: A location-aware, cross-layer specialization of chord for wireless mesh networks (concise contribution). In: 6th Annual IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications, PerCom 2008, pp. 206–212, March 2008Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Caesar, M., Castro, M., Nightingale, E.B., O’Shea, G., Rowstron, A.: Virtual ring routing: network routing inspired by DHTs. SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 36(4), 351–362 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Caleffi, M., Paura, L.: M-DART: multi-path dynamic address routing. Wirel. Commun. Mob. Comput. 11(3), 392–409 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Castro, M., Kassler, A., Chiasserini, C.F., Casetti, C., Korpeoglu, I.: Peer-to-peer overlay in mobile ad-hoc networks. In: Shen, X., Yu, H., Buford, J., Akon, M. (eds.) Handbook of Peer-to-Peer Networking, pp. 1045–1080. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Castro, M., Villanueva, E., Ruiz, I., Sargento, S., Kassler, A.: Performance evaluation of structured P2P over wireless multi-hop networks. In: 2nd International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications, SENSORCOMM 2008, pp. 796–801, August 2008Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chowdhury, F., Kolberg, M.: Performance evaluation of structured peer-to-peer overlays for use on mobile networks. In: 2013 6th International Conference on Developments in eSystems Engineering (DeSE), pp. 57–62, December 2013Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cramer, C., Fuhrmann, T.: Performance evaluation of Chord in mobile ad hoc networks. In: Proceedings of 1st International Workshop on Decentralized Resource Sharing in Mobile Computing and Networking, MobiShare 2006, pp. 48–53. ACM, New York (2006)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Delmastro, F.: From pastry to crossroad: cross-layer ring overlay for ad hoc networks. In: 3rd IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops, PerCom 2005 Workshops, pp. 60–64, March 2005Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fuhrmann, T., Di, P., Kutzner, K., Cramer, C.: Pushing chord into the underlay: scalable routing for hybrid MANETs. Interner Bericht 2006–2012, Fakultät für Informatik, Universität Karlsruhe, 21 June 2006Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hu, Y.C., Das, S.M., Pucha, H.: Exploiting the synergy between peer-to-peer and mobile ad hoc networks. In: Proceedings of 9th Conference on Hot Topics in Operating Systems, HOTOS 2003, vol. 9, p. 7. USENIX Association, Berkeley (2003)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
    Jacquet, P., Muhlethaler, P., Clausen, T., Laouiti, A., Qayyum, A., Viennot, L.: Optimized link state routing protocol for ad hoc networks. In: Proceedings of Multi Topic Conference, IEEE INMIC 2001, Technology for the 21st Century, pp. 62–68. IEEE International (2001)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Johnson, D.B., Maltz, D.A., Broch, J.: DSR: the dynamic source routing protocol for multihop wireless ad hoc networks. In: Perkins, C.E. (ed.) Ad Hoc Networking, pp. 139–172. Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc., Boston (2001)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Krishnamurthy, S., El-Ansary, S., Aurell, E., Haridi, S.: A statistical theory of Chord under churn. In: Castro, M., Renesse, R. (eds.) IPTPS 2005. LNCS, vol. 3640, pp. 93–103. Springer, Heidelberg (2005). doi: 10.1007/11558989_9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Maymounkov, P., Mazières, D.: Kademlia: a peer-to-peer information system based on the XOR metric. In: Druschel, P., Kaashoek, F., Rowstron, A. (eds.) IPTPS 2002. LNCS, vol. 2429, pp. 53–65. Springer, Heidelberg (2002). doi: 10.1007/3-540-45748-8_5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Oliveira, L., Siqueira, I., Macedo, D., Loureiro, A., Wong, H., Nogueira, J.: Evaluation of peer-to-peer network content discovery techniques over mobile ad hoc networks. In: 6th IEEE International Symposium on World of Wireless Mobile and Multimedia Networks, WoWMoM 2005, pp. 51–56, June 2005Google Scholar
  22. 22.
  23. 23.
    Perkins, C.E., Royer, E.M.: Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing. In: Proceedings of 2nd IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computer Systems and Applications, WMCSA 1999, p. 90. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC (1999)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pouwelse, J., Garbacki, P., Epema, D., Sips, H.: The Bittorrent P2P file-sharing system: measurements and analysis. In: Castro, M., Renesse, R. (eds.) IPTPS 2005. LNCS, vol. 3640, pp. 205–216. Springer, Heidelberg (2005). doi: 10.1007/11558989_19 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pucha, H., Das, S., Hu, Y.: Ekta: an efficient DHT substrate for distributed applications in mobile ad hoc networks. In: 6th IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, WMCSA 2004, pp. 163–173, December 2004Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ripeanu, M.: Peer-to-peer architecture case study: Gnutella network. In: Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing, pp. 99–100, August 2001Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rowstron, A., Druschel, P.: Pastry: scalable, decentralized object location, and routing for large-scale peer-to-peer systems. In: Guerraoui, R. (ed.) Middleware 2001. LNCS, vol. 2218, pp. 329–350. Springer, Heidelberg (2001). doi: 10.1007/3-540-45518-3_18 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Seddiki, M., Benchaïba, M.: An adaptive P2P overlay for MANETs. In: Proceedings of 2015 International Conference on Distributed Computing and Networking, ICDCN 2015, pp. 24:1–24:8. ACM, New York (2015)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sözer, H.: A peer-to-peer file sharing system for wireless ad-hoc networks, August 2004Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Stoica, I., Morris, R., Karger, D., Kaashoek, M.F., Balakrishnan, H.: Chord: a scalable peer-to-peer lookup service for internet applications. In: Proceedings of 2001 Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications, SIGCOMM 2001, pp. 149–160. ACM, New York (2001)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Stutzbach, D., Rejaie, R.: Towards a better understanding of churn in peer-to-peer networks. Technical report, Univ. of Oregon (2004)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Trifa, Z., Khemakhem, M.: Effects of churn on structured P2P overlay networks. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Automation, Control, Engineering and Computer Science, ACECS 2014, pp. 164–170 (2014)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zahn, T., Schiller, J.: MADPastry: a DHT substrate for practicably sized MANETs. In: Proceedings of 5th Workshop on Applications and Services in Wireless Networks (ASWN 2005), Paris, France, June 2005Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anurag Sewak
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mayank Pandey
    • 1
  • Manoj Madhava Gore
    • 1
  1. 1.Computer Science and Engineering DepartmentMotilal Nehru National Institute of Technology AllahabadAllahabadIndia

Personalised recommendations