Water Regulation and Purification
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As detailed in previous chapters, urban forests and trees are an integral part of a city’s green infrastructure (Benedict and McMahon 2006; Sanesi et al. 2011) and provide an array of different ecosystem services (Bolund and Hunhammar 1999; Tyrväinen et al. 2005; Livesley et al. 2014). Among the most critical of these services, in many cases, is the contribution of urban forestation to water retention and flood regulation (Sanders 1986).
Overwhelming stormwater volumes in urban environments have become a worldwide environmental and financial concern. The potential causes for increased flooding in European cities include higher rainfall intensities, ongoing urbanization and surface sealing, aging urban infrastructure, and deficient infrastructure capacities – since the existing infrastructures were not designed for current rainfall intensities (Kirnbauer et al. 2013). As a result, the ability to mitigate stormwater runoff in many urbanized watersheds around Europe has been...
KeywordsUrban Forest Understory Vegetation Green Infrastructure Tree Canopy Cover Surface Water Runoff
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